Sir Nicolaus Pevsner
Sir Nicolaus Pevsner was the first fine art historian who aimed at the spatiality of architecture,
it is rather surprise that axiomatic nature of architecture was not clarified
until the 20th century. However, as above-mentioned, since in the scene
of practice of fine art creator, it is material that stimulates inspiration
and stirs conation, posture of trying to take it from rear space cannot
be expected. Although theoretician has an overlooking observing eye, because
he/she is only a looker-on, being influenced strongly by the report reached
from the scene of actual creation, it may be no wonder that he/she cannot
avoid an overestimate viewpoint to material. When architecture became one
field of engineering, and architect became able to concentrate on drawing
up a plan and structural computation, they could break spell of material
for the first time.
Because degree of
overestimate to material is high even in architecture in which space has many
rates to material, to aiming at space is hardly looked forward in sculpture in
which most of human body space is occupied by material or painting in which
space is only recalled from scrap of plane which can be glimpsed at blank of
canvas. Sculpture is called in the name, plastic art, and it is natural that the
spatiality is not born in the mind at all.
As for carved statue in
which an actual existing matter is reproduced faithfully, because an occupied
space of object is given, it seems to be invariable. However, in case of
creating object existing nowhere, either in way of designing in the head or transforming
lump of material like trial and error, constant space in which something
occupies is cut off with distinguishing it from the others qualitatively. If
thinking that this act of cutting-off space is just the reorganization of
space, it is possible to understand easily that sculpture is one of typical
example. If thinking that to create a complete new one from nothing is the acme
of creativity, to take the viewpoint that sculpture is spatial reorganization
is equal to awaking to truly creative sculpture. As far as sculptor is content
with imitating sculpture, it will stay as plastic art forever.
In case of painting,
because drawing surface always lacks one dimension compared with object in
three dimensions, the spatiality is forced to be conscious continuously.
Therefore, because, whenever painter draws a painting, one dimension is lacked
necessarily, whatever its form is and also regardless of consciousness of
painter, this is the reorganization of space with negative meaning.
Then it becomes a left problem
whether or not painter is aware of this natural reorganization of space. If
painter awakes to the intentional reorganization here and tries to reproduce an
actual dimension inside of drawing surface, the aggressive reorganization of
Incidentally, paintings drawn by the natural reorganization of space, such as dropping a three-dimensional existence on a drawing surface of two dimensions, are "projection plan", and paintings drawn by the intentional reorganization, such as
reproducing an actual dimension, are "perspective plan", and they become two main types of painting composition.
Since photograph has recorded "perspective plan" optically without necessity of any device, contrary to painting, "perspective plan" is made naturally. Therefore, to make "projection plan" becomes the intentional reorganization of space. In the, if photographer not having question to mechanical record of "perspective plan", for him, spatial reorganization is decided only by the way of taking a position vector between his/her place of photographing and photographic subject. Because an optional position vector fills all three-dimensional space, to choose someone means choosing specific space. If considering this act of choosing as the reorganization in a wide sense, there is the reorganization of space in photograph surely as well, and this is included in the category of fine art.
Incidentally, painting includes all
attributes of photograph described here. Therefore, painter can reorganize
space double by act of choice of his/her drawing position in addition to
creating of "perspective plan".
As mentioned above, architecture with overwhelmingly high rate occupation
of space to material is the style where the universal essence prescription of
fine art, the reorganization of space, appeared most clear. In addition to it,
architecture stands special dominant status to the other fine art style.
the setting to sculpture. Speaking in another way, architecture can hold
sculpture inside itself like object in painting. The fact that it can hold
inside means that architecture can prescribe to give significance of the ideal
way of sculpture. If an ideal and heroic person image is placed in shrine, it
is manifestation of the specific god, and if it is placed in palace, it becomes
the monument of dynasty.
While architecture holds sculpture, sculpture sometimes prescribes the
ideal way of architecture oppositely, too. Abu Simbel temple in Egypt, cave of Buddhist statue at Bamiyan in Afghanistan, Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. and so on are such examples, but in this case the
degrees of spatial reorganization of architecture are very poor. This architecture
is only like sketchy setting of portrait. Such an architecture is an appendage
of sculpture and we define it as "warehouse" which has low original
Abu Simbel temple in Egypt
Cave of Buddhist statue at Bamiyan
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.