|Thesis | Thinking on Space Art | Principle| 3 Primary Art and Secondary Art 1
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Thinking on Space Art


Part 1   Principle


Chapter 3  Primary Fine Art and Secondary Fine Art  1

Sir Nicolaus Pevsner
Sir Nicolaus Pevsner

   Sir Nicolaus Pevsner was the first fine art historian who aimed at the spatiality of architecture, it is rather surprise that axiomatic nature of architecture was not clarified until the 20th century. However, as above-mentioned, since in the scene of practice of fine art creator, it is material that stimulates inspiration and stirs conation, posture of trying to take it from rear space cannot be expected. Although theoretician has an overlooking observing eye, because he/she is only a looker-on, being influenced strongly by the report reached from the scene of actual creation, it may be no wonder that he/she cannot avoid an overestimate viewpoint to material. When architecture became one field of engineering, and architect became able to concentrate on drawing up a plan and structural computation, they could break spell of material for the first time.
  Because degree of overestimate to material is high even in architecture in which space has many rates to material, to aiming at space is hardly looked forward in sculpture in which most of human body space is occupied by material or painting in which space is only recalled from scrap of plane which can be glimpsed at blank of canvas. Sculpture is called in the name, plastic art, and it is natural that the spatiality is not born in the mind at all.
  As for carved statue in which an actual existing matter is reproduced faithfully, because an occupied space of object is given, it seems to be invariable. However, in case of creating object existing nowhere, either in way of designing in the head or transforming lump of material like trial and error, constant space in which something occupies is cut off with distinguishing it from the others qualitatively. If thinking that this act of cutting-off space is just the reorganization of space, it is possible to understand easily that sculpture is one of typical example. If thinking that to create a complete new one from nothing is the acme of creativity, to take the viewpoint that sculpture is spatial reorganization is equal to awaking to truly creative sculpture. As far as sculptor is content with imitating sculpture, it will stay as plastic art forever.
  In case of painting, because drawing surface always lacks one dimension compared with object in three dimensions, the spatiality is forced to be conscious continuously. Therefore, because, whenever painter draws a painting, one dimension is lacked necessarily, whatever its form is and also regardless of consciousness of painter, this is the reorganization of space with negative meaning.
  Then it becomes a left problem whether or not painter is aware of this natural reorganization of space. If painter awakes to the intentional reorganization here and tries to reproduce an actual dimension inside of drawing surface, the aggressive reorganization of space starts.
  Incidentally, paintings drawn by the natural reorganization of space, such as dropping a three-dimensional existence on a drawing surface of two dimensions, are "projection plan", and paintings drawn by the intentional reorganization, such as reproducing an actual dimension, are "perspective plan", and they become two main types of painting composition.
  Since photograph has recorded "perspective plan" optically without necessity of any device, contrary to painting, "perspective plan" is made naturally. Therefore, to make "projection plan" becomes the intentional reorganization of space. In the, if photographer not having question to mechanical record of "perspective plan", for him, spatial reorganization is decided only by the way of taking a position vector between his/her place of photographing and photographic subject. Because an optional position vector fills all three-dimensional space, to choose someone means choosing specific space. If considering this act of choosing as the reorganization in a wide sense, there is the reorganization of space in photograph surely as well, and this is included in the category of fine art.
  Incidentally, painting includes all attributes of photograph described here. Therefore, painter can reorganize space double by act of choice of his/her drawing position in addition to creating of "perspective plan".


   As mentioned above, architecture with overwhelmingly high rate occupation of space to material is the style where the universal essence prescription of fine art, the reorganization of space, appeared most clear. In addition to it, architecture stands special dominant status to the other fine art style.
  Architecture becomes the setting to sculpture. Speaking in another way, architecture can hold sculpture inside itself like object in painting. The fact that it can hold inside means that architecture can prescribe to give significance of the ideal way of sculpture. If an ideal and heroic person image is placed in shrine, it is manifestation of the specific god, and if it is placed in palace, it becomes the monument of dynasty.
  While architecture holds sculpture, sculpture sometimes prescribes the ideal way of architecture oppositely, too. Abu Simbel temple in Egypt, cave of Buddhist statue at Bamiyan in Afghanistan, Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. and so on are such examples, but in this case the degrees of spatial reorganization of architecture are very poor. This architecture is only like sketchy setting of portrait. Such an architecture is an appendage of sculpture and we define it as "warehouse" which has low original artistical value.
Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel temple in Egypt
Bamiyan
Cave of Buddhist statue at Bamiyan
Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.





This text should not be translated into any other languages without autor's permission.



Written and Translated by Taketoshi Murayama.
Original translation is rewritten by CT

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