| As seen above, architecture always includes two kinds of
reorganized space, outer space and inner space. Space has three dimensions, but
by the law that the greater serves for the lesser, it includes lower dimensions
in itself as an element. The lower dimensional element is next three such as
surfaces of two dimensions, lines of one dimension and point of zero-dimension.
These three-dimensional elements become element which composes an architecture
just as it is.
Surface of two
dimensions is a wall, a floor, a ceiling, line of one dimension is a pillar and
a beam and point of zero-dimension is a joint. These become implements of the
spatial reorganization of architecture. Elements except floor become implements
of the reorganization of outer space by exposing outward as well.
space includes different space of smaller volume inside it. This different
space is an important component of architecture and is implement of spatial
reorganization. This different space is related only to the reorganization of
inner space from the nature of it. Even if it projects to outer space, new
surface and line appear there only.
There are two kinds of
this inclusion space such as "room" which creates one division like a
cell inside some building and "corridor" which links plural
"rooms". Also, the latter "corridor" has three kinds of
"level corridor", "upright corridor", and "slant corridor"
according to direction of opening. Surface created when "corridor"
crosses "room" is "door" and surface created when they
cross outer space becomes "window".
vein which joins "room" as a cell in inner space and it changes
significance of "room". (Existence of elements compared with cell and
vein show vividly that they are materials which express organic variety of the
creative mind like road and piazza in city.) "Level corridor"
strengthens relevance or continuity between outside society and the building by
making "room" opening space more. Saying concretely,
"corridor" functions to summon here member of community where the
building exists. On the other hand, "upright corridor" makes
"room" isolated holy area by making it more exclusive. By the fact
that only chosen persons can enter this place, "corridor" is useful
for discrimination and ranking inside resident of the building. Also,
"door" and "window" which "corridor" creates on
surface of "room" changes the significance of "room" and its
surface, "wall", "floor", "ceiling".
They diminish the
function of which surface surrounds "room" should have originally for
another practicality or decorations. For example, "window" partially
renounces an essential function, the shelter-ability of wall, because of
illumination of inner space.
Summarizing these, the
reorganization of inner space of architecture is accomplished by arrangement
and combination of "room" and "corridor". The
reorganization of outer space is accomplished by arrangement and combination of
"wall", "ceiling", "window", "pillar"
and "beam". But, because these concern organization of inner space at
the same time, organization of staring fixedly at both of the inside and
outside is required. Because joint itself cannot be operated and its ideal way
is automatically decided with decision of the other elements, it is not
implement but only result of the spatial reorganization.
It is only on parts of
surface, line and joint that decorations are accomplished in architecture. Saying
from reverse, decorations are not adorned in "room" and "corridor" themselves. (There are some occasions that surface,
line and joint surround "room" and "corridor" are adorned
and finally "room" and "corridor" themselves are adorned
as a result.) After all, since decorative fine art in architecture never
participates in "corridor" and "room", these are territories
which only pure fine art handles mainly. Saying more, it is only the reorganization of inner space
that pure fine art handles out of rebuilding of space in architecture.
Because "room" and "corridor" themselves are space,
these arrangements are only the pure reorganizations of space, and are
examples of the creative reorganizations of space.
Except for the case
that inside and outside are connected, only decorative fine art takes charge of
the reorganization of outer space. Saying oppositely, decorative fine art
participates in the reorganization of space in all places of architecture.
Therefore, if one architect is well-informed about both of pure fine art and
decorative fine art, he/she will be able to reorganize inside and outside space
of building as a whole to all the corners uniformly. But, when artisan shares
and executes this decorative fine art, because he/she does not have consciousness
of altering "the world", as for the spatial reorganization of
architecture, he/she is compelled to follow the instruction of person who made its
When sculpture and painting are included in
architecture according to the conceptual incorporation of pure fine art, they
are arranged in either of above-mentioned components. When arrangement of
painting is accomplished, it is necessarily specified on a part of surface. If
the painting strengthens independence, its can be separated from the surface.
The above-mentioned tapestry is typical for such a case. If its independence
becomes stronger, it will become like furniture, for example altar painting.
In case of sculpture, generally, its attached place is specified on parts of line and joint but the one which has nature of relief strongly is sometimes arranged on surface. However, if sculpture strengthens independence, beyond limitation to these places, it is possible to be arranged anywhere. It belongs to this example that David of Michelangelo was placed in front of Palazze della Signoria in Florence and that later it was separated and moved to Accademia Gallery.
In short, if painting
strengthens nature as "pictorial diagram", sculpture strengthens
nature as "doll statue", the degree of separation from architecture
rises, oppositely if their natures weaken, painting is arranged on surface of
architecture, sculpture is arranged in line or at joint.
mentioned above, nature of pure fine art of architecture appeared in the way of
arrangement of "room" and "corridor". If sculpture and
painting are created as pure fine art, because conscious of the spatial
reorganization is awakened strongly, if they are planned to be absorbed to
architecture, sculptor and painter will create while they take nature of
"room" and "corridor" into consideration. With this
process, architecture, sculpture, and painting are constringed to the same
reorganization of space as a whole.
There are plane and curved surface in composition of surface of
architecture. Also, there are straight line and curve in that of line
similarly. The change occurs to nature of architecture by the way that these
are adopted. If curved surface and curve are adopted, according to its degrees,
architecture densifies nature of specific cultural style. Oppositely, if there
are many rates of plane and straight line, it gains the universality which
exceeds specific cultural style.
This thing attributes to the simplicity and the unoriginality of plane and straight line, and to the variety of curved surface and curve. The attribute of plane and straight line is single except area and length, but as for curved surface and curve, thinking of them a little, there are transformations of trigonometrical function and exponential and logarithm function in addition to quadratic curve and quadric surface, cubic function and transformations of it, and moreover, even these syntheses can be thought of. The combination of this variety suits expression of special taste of human being and it is used for showing a cultural style as stereotype of taste.
However, there were not
so many kinds of materials which were historically used for architecture. They
were approximately limited to stone, timber, brick and so on. It is fresh that metallic
material appears on the history, and moreover it is seldom used completely. The
durability of brick has a problem, but with another material except it, e.g. clay,
grass and so on, permanent architecture cannot be composed, and such one never remains
in history but becomes a research object of archaeology.
However, stone and
timber, materials that are often used for architecture, aren't convenient for creating
a curved surface and a curve freely. As for stone, because curved surface and
curve are inconvenient to make the building composed of it strong structurally,
the meaning of existence as architecture runs out unless excluding it as much
as possible. Also, timber is difficult to bending itself from its nature of
Thus, to carve material, i.e. to create a curved surface and a curve on surface of it artificially substitutes for bending material. If such a way is taken, it is possible to make the solidity as material of architecture and introduction of the curvature compatible. To introduce the curvature into surface of material is none other than to create sculpture. In a word, to introduce the curvature into component of architecture is the same thing as arranging sculpture on component of architecture after all. For example, if taking the gentle setting of the curvature, such as making Entasis on pillar, as a sculpture of wide sense, introduction of the curvature and sculpture is synonymous fully.
To introduce the curvature
into surface and line, components of architecture, was to plant a specific
cultural style to architecture. If it is true, to arrange a sculpture of wide sense
to some architecture is equal to plant a specific cultural style to the architecture.
decorations introduce a lot of the curvature into architecture. Then, because it
is obvious that many decorative sculptures strengthen nature as cultural style
of architecture, quantitative degree of introduction of the curvature to
architecture is proportioned to degree of strength with its cultural style. In
the future, if metal and plastic and so on become to use more as materials of
architecture with improvement of architectural technology, introduction of the
curvature increases and stylize in architecture will advance more as well.
In the time when only
stone and timber were used as materials of architecture, because it was
difficult to create a curved surface, a slanted line was much used as a
substitute method for it. Slanted line is a kind of straight line, taking a
certain angle not perpendicular to surface of earth; it gives a similar
psychological effect of a curved surface. Introducing the curvature into a part
of slanted line, synergy effect acting, strengthened nature of curved surface
more. In a word, it gave nature of style to architecture to the same extend,
and architecture could overcome the limitation of material.
Incidentally, because painting does not
create a curved surface, though it can be sometimes drawn on a curved surface made
by architecture, it never brings about introduction of the curvature, and it
receives the curvature only. Therefore, in case that a painting as decoration
is used for architecture, it brings in cultural style by power of itself not the
curvature. Also, if decorative sculpture strengthens the figurativeness, it
brings in cultural form by power of itself likewise painting, but introduction
of the curvature is together accomplished. In other words, sculpture stylizes
architecture in a double meaning.
As mentioned above, introduction of the curvature in
architecture accompanied with the absorption of sculpture in a wide sense clarifies
stylization of architecture, and ties architecture to specific area and the
times. Oppositely, the separation of sculpture, that is to say, doll
statue-ization, invents exclusion of the curvature, that is to say
dis-stylization, and detaches architecture from specific area and the times.
In this way,
architecture and sculpture have deep relevancy through the curvature, and while
show two aspects of the mutual dependence and the mutual independence, it
creates spatial reorganization with complementarity.
On the other hand,
painting is persistently arranged on surface as a component of architecture,
but it only encounter architecture, there is not an element which mediates these
directly, and there is not internal relevancy mutually. In other words, the intimateness
seen between architecture and sculpture is not seen between architecture and
This appears in the
point that architecture and sculpture share three-dimensional space as given
thing together. Painting lacks the third dimension and it is necessary to be
created like a fiction by special techniques. The special technique is
perspective about setting, and as for object, it is Chiaroscuro. Through
these techniques, the spatiality is taken inside drawing surface of painting.
Therefore, it is necessary to think that pure space art,
architecture, sculpture, painting, are mainly divided into two groups, one of
them, architecture and sculpture, and the other, painting. Here, based on
degree of approach to the essence of fine art, the reorganization of space, we
define the former as primary fine art and the latter as secondary fine art.
In primary fine art,
because space is straight material, its reorganization can be understood sensuously.
In other words, the fact that fine art is space art becomes self-evident with
creation act. On the other hand, in secondary fine art, the reorganization of
space is not self-evident. It is awaken at last when architecture is taken in
as drawing object.
It is not necessarily required to use strict method like perspective here.
Even in case that fictitious building a roof of room of which removed intentionally
like "roomwell perspective (Fukinuki Yatai)" in painting scroll
of Japan is drawn, or also even in case of an improper perspective as used
in "The Merode Altarpiece", the meaning that description of space
accompanied to drawing a building is brought into a plane is decisive.
A childish setting of building has higher degrees of bringing the spatiality
into painting than a perfect reappearance painting of person, and it makes
suggest a lead to the essence of fine art, the reorganization of space,
and the relation between painting and primary fine art.
Fukinuki Yatai in painting scroll of Japan
The Merode Altarpiece
There are two elements, object and setting, in painting. Then, this is
divided into two types such as either element of object or setting becomes
a theme and the type that both of them become a theme. We name the former
"separate painting" and the latter "integrated painting". When making an object a theme, "separate painting" is
divided into "portrait" in which a person is drawn and "still
life painting" in which the other one is drawn, when setting attracts
attention, it becomes "landscape". "Integrated painting"
can be divided into "history painting" in which legend becomes
a theme and "genre painting" in which a part of daily society
In this way, the elements of painting, object and setting, create the type
of painting. Then, the type of painting becomes the type of expressing
the specific "world" as space art. In other words, "portrait" is the type which
shows the view of person, "landscape" the view of natural, "history
painting" the view of history, "genre painting" the view
Architecture and sculpture as primary fine art are different
from painting greatly. Being detached from a part of architecture, and getting
to have an original existence somewhat; Sculpture is made under some theme. Therefore,
it corresponds to an object of painting. On the other hand, architecture
becomes a setting to this sculpture as object. In other words, painting can be
equipped with object and setting at the same time inside it, but architecture
and sculpture can play only either role.
Also, sculpture must
have independence with some degree to play a role of object but must not be
independent fully. The reason is that if having become like this, the necessity
that a specific architecture is located as a setting ceases to exist. In brief,
sculpture must be in half independent condition from architecture to play a
role of object in painting. Saying in other words, when a sculpture becomes
"semi-curved pillar" to some architecture, its role of object is maximized.
In this way,
architecture and sculpture as primary fine art need a certain condition to play
a role as object and setting of painting. As mentioned above, object and
setting are the expression type of view of the world in addition to mere
component of painting. Therefore, the fact that the role of object and setting cannot
be played sufficiently means the thing that expression of view of the world is
not free. In other words, in the point of expression of view of the world, the
free degree of primary fine art is inferior compared with secondary fine art.
There is another limitation
which comes from nature of artificial building on the side of architecture in
addition to limitation which comes from the fact that the half independence from
architecture decides the condition of sculpture as object. In other words, this
is impossible to be natural. That is to say, architecture cannot express nature
by only setting like painting. Architecture might have to borrow power of
symbol to do this. However, painting can expand the width of expression more by
using a symbol.
In this way, primary
fine art does not reach the freeness of expression of painting in object and
setting because of the independence of sculpture and the artificiality of
architecture. Primary fine art could approach the essence of space art most by
having space consequentially. However, being inferior to painting at the degree
of internal freeness, it is not possible to stand predominantly to painting.
Saying in other words, superiority or inferiority cannot be established between
primary fine art and secondary fine art.
There is common idea that sculpture is
ancient fine art, architecture is medieval fine art, and painting is modern
fine art. There is no theoretical validity in this common idea but there is
some reason in saying such a thing. Painting is easy to create compared with
primary fine art, and also the room of operation by individual is big.
Therefore, the population of painting a painting gradually increases in the
times. Then, because the freeness of the above mentioned internal expression is
complete, it is natural trend that its weight in fine art increases gradually.
The equality of primary
fine art and secondary fine art does not appear only in aspect of above-mentioned
form of expression. It appears in aspect of expressed content as well. The
purpose of art is to express beauty. Fine art as space art expresses this
beauty through the reorganization of space. By the way, saying what beauty is,
it is none other than to project the harmony and the balance onto the pure subjectivity.
The harmony and the balance are the symmetry and the proportion. (The harmony
and the balance, or the symmetry and the proportion are the idea for the values
except beauty. It exists in justice which is frame of goodness, and is seen
between being and power which is structure of nature. Holy existence is
believed to lead a person to the harmony and the balance in perfection.) In
space art, this beauty is announced through sensuous presentation, plane,
curved surface or straight line, curve. It is possible to say that there is
beauty when the balance of the harmony is felt most in sense through these combinations.
Then, this beauty can
be straightest expressed in architecture. Architecture can freely use all
elements, plane, curved surface, straight line, curve, which express beauty. The
reason is that, for architecture, three-dimensional space is given originally
and also as above-mentioned, three-dimensional space contains a line in two
dimensions naturally. Then, because architecture is artificial, it can combine
these elements freely.
In this way,
architecture obtains the best freeness in the point of expression of beauty. Since
painting is drawn only in plane, it cannot use a plane and a curved surface
freely. As for sculpture, by limitation of material and volume, the degree of
processing surface and line are restricted. Paraphrasing this, processing of a
surface cannot be extended out of material. If trying to express beauty in the
other art style, an architectonic way will be copied. This thing is contrastive
to the fact that painting obtains the best freeness in the point of expression
of " the world".
However, beauty is not
only the harmony and the balance as above-mentioned. There is another beauty
based on the actual world which is shown by the above-mentioned expression of
the spatio-temporal. It is beauty comes from the ideal situation where ensemble
of the values for human being is realized. As long as beauty is a kind of the
value, it is placed in the situation where all the values such as truth,
goodness and holiness are integrated and it fuses with the other values there.
The fusing situation of
these values cannot be expressed only by the formal element like surface and
line, and it must be shown as the substance which made it a tegument. Then,
sounds and words in addition to line and surface are mobilized, and this
substance is revealed to the mind of human being through the medium of these. Speaking
in another way, its maximum expression is embodied in composite art.
We define beauty rises
from such an ideal as substantial beauty, and we distinguish it from formal
beauty where only frame of the harmony and the balance is shown. If it is true,
it is only in formal beauty that, out of expression of beauty, architecture
obtains the best freeness, and this can be accomplished in composite art about
substantial beauty. The best style of composite art is an opera in old days and
it is a movie in today when film-recording medium has appeared. Then, in
addition that movie can express all ones which can be expressed by opera, movie
can express any more than opera. In other words, movie obtains the best freeness
about expression of the substantial beauty.
linguistic art forms frame of composite art. Because it is independent from the
spatio-temporal, this can concern both time and space. When linguistic art
appears as composite art, it takes a form, a play. Then, play is performed as
drama; it has norm and fate as its contents and connects with goodness through
this. Norm and fate show tragedy or comedy through conflict between ideal and its
Both of them are
developed through words of human being as the subject which handles languages.
Words is combined with a certain body action of human being and this set
becomes a symbol to ideal and reality which are contents of words, and to norm
and fate which become frame in which they are stored. Then that this action is
shown becomes an expression of ideal, reality, norm and fate that are burdened
with it just as it is. What does this mean? To draw action of person just as it
is becomes a main expression form of painting. Painting approaches composite
art most through symbolized body out of space art and it can visually show the
substantial beauty expressed there.
Then, in the relation to these symbols, symbolism plays an important role in linguistic art and painting. Painting can install
even holy value into the substantial beauty by using symbolism. Painting
which has only two dimensions can surpass architecture in the point of
depth of expression by this. However, regrettably, symbolism is not the
style of all painters and it is in the last years of the 19th century that
painter noticed the role.
Ideal, reality and then norm and fate become a story for human being. Painting has a function to undertake this story through body symbol. Painting drawn by such a way is called "programme painting" and painting in which relation with story is cut, and only combination
of line and color has a meaning is called "absolute painting". (There can be "programme sculpture" in sculpture. There
are innumerable examples which made ancient gods and heroes clay figures
and all of these are "programme sculpture". Because there is
only an object in painting in sculpture, there is limitation in ability
of expression of programme, though. Moreover, "absolute sculpture"
in which materials are combined optionally can be thought theoretically,
but such one often becomes a part of architecture.)
As above-mentioned, a figure of human being who heads for ideal is shown by the sublimity and this is emphasized in proportion to distance of ideal and reality. In case that distance to ideal is near, the elegance is sometimes expressed to reinforce and to make stand out this sublimity. In fine art, this will be able to accomplish only a painting. We can see this example to Raffaello's "The Sistine Madonna". (The second movement of symphony No5 of Ludwig van Beethoven becomes an example of this elegance in music)
The Sistine Madonna
Ludwig van Beethoven
Formal beauty which shows one aspect of the harmonies and the balances
is shown in architecture out of fine art. Decorations at capital of Ionic order in ancient Greece architecture can be given as this example. (The third
movement of symphony No41 "Jupiter" of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart becomes the example of this elegance in music.) )
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
Architecture which can express formal beauty straight suits to show the mind of classicism. Therefore, a style modeled after order at Greek architecture can have strong influence and in the other art style called classicism, an architectonic mind covers it. On the other hand, out of fine art,
painting which is the nearest to the substantial beauty suits to express
romanticism to show dynamism of heading for ideal, and realism to stare fixedly at sill of actuality. (Focusing on only theme of painting,
realism romanticism is often taken as opposite principle, but seeing according
to essential function of painting, there is not a difference so much in
above-mentioned, architecture can include a theater by having space inside.
Therefore, it becomes environment indispensable for drama to make show the substantial
beauty in the form of linguistic art directly. Painting reinforces emergence of
the substantial beauty in linguistic art by functioning as a part of setting in
this case. Then, sculpture will play both roles. In this way, leaving the
essence, the reorganization of space, and taking relation to the substantial
beauty in linguistic art, each fine art participates here in original condition.
Incidentally, it is not necessary to add any
more words that expression means of the above-mentioned formal beauty can be
diverted into expression of the disharmony and the unbalance, its denial form,
and that expression means of the substantial beauty can be applied to
expression of reality, its denial form. Therefore, architecture can express the
disharmony and the unbalance thoroughly and comprehensively and also painting
comes close to description of reality most.
Summarizing above is as follows. In the field of space art, beauty as the
single value in which the harmony and the balance are projected on the
subjectivity of human being are expressed most directly and moreover at
the maximum in architecture in which surface and line are combined freely.
Beauty in ideal in which fusion of all value the idea of which is the harmony
and the balance is revealed to the whole human mind obtains a maximum expression
in movie, painting approaches there most through body symbol. As a result,
painting expresses beauty as ideal at the maximum out of space art.
In this way, in the
point of purpose of expression, comparing architecture which shows the formal
beauty most directly with painting which is the nearest to the substantial
beauty, we can understand the fact that superiority or inferiority as art style
cannot be put. Incidentally, since sculpture can use a function of symbolize of
body like painting, it can express the substantial beauty. However, because
there is an above-mentioned immanent limitation in architecture from which sculpture
borrows a function of setting in addition to sculpture's not having an original
setting, limitation is sure to emerge naturally in degree of expression of the
substantial beauty. But, because architecture's advantage of expression of the
formal beauty can be used, seeing as a whole, superiority or inferiority on the
ability of expression cannot be put compared to paintings.
expresses the most supreme formal beauty, painting which can express the
substantial beauty at the maximum and sculpture which is partially equipped
with both elements being arranged overall according to the essence of fine art,
the reorganization of space, if the internal relevancy of them is grasped, one
unifying fine art mind is acting there surely.
To show how this fine art mind appeared and changed
in history of human race becomes a duty of fine art history. We decide to show
it concretely below.
This text should not be translated into any other languages without autor's
Written and Translated by Taketoshi Murayama.
Original translation is rewritten by CT
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