|Thesis | Thinking on Space Art | Principle| 3 Primary Art and Secondary Art (1)
Thinking on Space Art

Part 1   Principle

Chapter 3  Primary Fine Art and Secondary Fine Art (1)

Sir Nicolaus Pevsner
Sir Nicolaus Pevsner

   Sir Nicolaus Pevsner was the first fine art historian who aimed at the spatiality of architecture, it is rather surprise that axiomatic nature of architecture was not clarified until the 20th century. However, as above-mentioned, since in the scene of practice of fine art creator, it is material that stimulates inspiration and stirs conation, posture of trying to take it from rear space cannot be expected. Although theoretician has an overlooking observing eye, because he/she is only a looker-on, being influenced strongly by the report reached from the scene of actual creation, it may be no wonder that he/she cannot avoid an overestimate viewpoint to material. When architecture became one field of engineering, and architect became able to concentrate on drawing up a plan and structural computation, they could break spell of material for the first time.
  Because degree of overestimate to material is high even in architecture in which space has many rates to material, to aiming at space is hardly looked forward in sculpture in which most of human body space is occupied by material or painting in which space is only recalled from scrap of plane which can be glimpsed at blank of canvas. Sculpture is called in the name, plastic art, and it is natural that the spatiality is not born in the mind at all.
  As for carved statue in which an actual existing matter is reproduced faithfully, because an occupied space of object is given, it seems to be invariable. However, in case of creating object existing nowhere, either in way of designing in the head or transforming lump of material like trial and error, constant space in which something occupies is cut off with distinguishing it from the others qualitatively. If thinking that this act of cutting-off space is just the reorganization of space, it is possible to understand easily that sculpture is one of typical example. If thinking that to create a complete new one from nothing is the acme of creativity, to take the viewpoint that sculpture is spatial reorganization is equal to awaking to truly creative sculpture. As far as sculptor is content with imitating sculpture, it will stay as plastic art forever.
  In case of painting, because drawing surface always lacks one dimension compared with object in three dimensions, the spatiality is forced to be conscious continuously. Therefore, because, whenever painter draws a painting, one dimension is lacked necessarily, whatever its form is and also regardless of consciousness of painter, this is the reorganization of space with negative meaning.
  Then it becomes a left problem whether or not painter is aware of this natural reorganization of space. If painter awakes to the intentional reorganization here and tries to reproduce an actual dimension inside of drawing surface, the aggressive reorganization of space starts.
  Incidentally, paintings drawn by the natural reorganization of space, such as dropping a three-dimensional existence on a drawing surface of two dimensions, are "projection plan", and paintings drawn by the intentional reorganization, such as reproducing an actual dimension, are "perspective plan", and they become two main types of painting composition.
  Since photograph has recorded "perspective plan" optically without necessity of any device, contrary to painting, "perspective plan" is made naturally. Therefore, to make "projection plan" becomes the intentional reorganization of space. In the, if photographer not having question to mechanical record of "perspective plan", for him, spatial reorganization is decided only by the way of taking a position vector between his/her place of photographing and photographic subject. Because an optional position vector fills all three-dimensional space, to choose someone means choosing specific space. If considering this act of choosing as the reorganization in a wide sense, there is the reorganization of space in photograph surely as well, and this is included in the category of fine art.
  Incidentally, painting includes all attributes of photograph described here. Therefore, painter can reorganize space double by act of choice of his/her drawing position in addition to creating of "perspective plan".

   As mentioned above, architecture with overwhelmingly high rate occupation of space to material is the style where the universal essence prescription of fine art, the reorganization of space, appeared most clear. In addition to it, architecture stands special dominant status to the other fine art style.
  Architecture becomes the setting to sculpture. Speaking in another way, architecture can hold sculpture inside itself like object in painting. The fact that it can hold inside means that architecture can prescribe to give significance of the ideal way of sculpture. If an ideal and heroic person image is placed in shrine, it is manifestation of the specific god, and if it is placed in palace, it becomes the monument of dynasty.
  While architecture holds sculpture, sculpture sometimes prescribes the ideal way of architecture oppositely, too. Abu Simbel temple in Egypt, cave of Buddhist statue at Bamiyan in Afghanistan, Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C. and so on are such examples, but in this case the degrees of spatial reorganization of architecture are very poor. This architecture is only like sketchy setting of portrait. Such an architecture is an appendage of sculpture and we define it as "warehouse" which has low original artistical value.
Abu Simbel
Abu Simbel temple in Egypt
Cave of Buddhist statue at Bamiyan
Lincoln Memorial
Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

Being different from painting, sculpture as object can be separated from architecture as setting, too. In this case, sculpture leaves the meaning of environment which architecture set and serves practical purpose of human being. We define sculpture separated from architecture in this way as "doll statue". On the other hand, we decide to name sculpture which is absorbed to architecture and becomes a part of it "carved pillar". Atlantes and Caryatides, sculptured pillars at Greek shrine, and sidewall sculpture in door at Chartres Cathedral, a typical Gothic architecture, are examples of this "carved pillar".
Chartres Cathedral
Sidewall sculpture in door at Chartres Cathedral

  Hand of sculptor as artist being added to sculpture attached to architecture, and a special role being given, it gets large-size and it strengthens independence from architecture. When becoming like this, the degrees of "doll statue"-ize increases. We decide to name sculpture accompanied an architecture in this way, moreover has strengthened artistry "semi carved pillar".
Assyrian Relief
The scenery of hunting on relief at the palace of Assyria
  Architecture gives special meaning to painting as well. Painting becomes a relief or a mural painting on instruction of existence place by wall which is one element of architecture, and is held inside an architecture like sculpture, and is given the special spatiality from outside. This spatiality is not made in simulation inside painting like above-mentioned "perspective plan", but is pressed from space of actual architecture. Peculiar reality would be drawn from the scenery of hunting on relief at the palace of Assyria by dignity of its placed room inside the palace, whereas it does not have the inner space due to throughout "projection plan" to the extent as much as possible.iIt is proper that relief is regarded as a kind of mural painting because of its strong nature of painting, none the less for thinking that it may be a sculpture installed on the surface.j
The Trinity
The Holy Trinity with the Virgin,
St. John and Two Donors
  Moreover, when mural painting gets to have the inner space with introduction of "perspective plan", by its overlapping with the spatial meaning given from architecture, for example like "The Holy Trinity with the Virgin, St. John and Two Donors" of Tommaso di Giovanni di Simone Masaccio, an advanced artistical value would be added to it.
  Paintings take original existence forms in being separated from wall at architecture and becoming panel paintings, canvas paintings, manuscript illustrations, prints and so on. Like sculpture separated from architecture, it serves the other practical purpose, too. We define the painting separated from architecture as "pictorial diagram".
  Tapestries and altar paintings which were much created in Western Europe are in the middle of mural painting and "pictorial diagram". These are made to have the two-facedness of the meanings given from architecture and original existence values of painting.
  As shown above, there is the mutual relevancy and the individuality among architecture, sculpture, and painting. It is possible to say that three kinds of styles are incorporated in the conception and these were defined as "pure fine art" by a lot of aestheticians. This conceptual incorporation means the theoretical unification into the identical category while containing the contrary moments such as the independence and the dependence.
  The conceptual incorporation of pure fine art seems to be reflection of organic integration of space. Space shows a frame in the world, if its organic integration is seen, it will show a more abundant mind. Therefore, the conceptual incorporation of pure fine art becomes the frame of prosperity and development of the mind of fine art, too. Saying in other words, in the place where the conceptual incorporation of pure fine art is understood clear, fine art is surely guided by the identical mind and leaves original style in fine art history. In the place where this is not understood, the mind of fine art dwells only in individual soul of a genius artist or it is only settled in the set of a lot of workmen and moment of unifying development is continuously exposed to crisis.
  The commonness as three existence forms of pure fine art is well-known thing but the conceptual incorporation is not always self-evident. It corresponds to the fact that universal essence of fine art, the reorganization of space, is not clear. So far, pure fine art was contrasted with decorative fine art and was distinguished from the viewpoint of art for art's sake principle in the fact not to limited by the other purpose. However, there are few ones, whatever it is painting, sculpture or architecture, which aren't used for non-artistic purpose and these have always continued to be used for rather religious or political purpose than it. Therefore, it shows obvious failure to prescribe the essence of pure fine art from the viewpoint of purpose.
  If there is consciousness to the spatial reorganization, since space showed the world, we already introduced that it is possible to become art because there is expression of view of the world of creator. It is proper most to define pure fine art from this viewpoint. Thinking like this, decorative fine art is the fine art which lacks view of the world peculiar to creator. Saying concretely, as above-mentioned, the fine art in which only imitation or mechanical reappearance of established style is seen is decorative fine art.
  Performer of decorative fine art is called an artisan. The rate for which decorative fine art by artisan accounts in actual fine art creating is big overwhelmingly. Speaking in another way, decorative fine art forms the ocean of fine art creating and pure fine art is like a boat floats on it. In other words, it is possible to say that pure fine art is hardly existed if there is not accumulation of decorative fine art.
  Since the spatiality exposes in architecture most, it is easy to become expression of view of the world, but the rate of participation of artisan becomes highest because it needs a lot of hands to create its materials. Therefore, it is ordinary to become the aggregate of decorative fine art. Consequently, artist called an architect generally appears later than the times of appearance of sculptor and painter.
  Also, it is required that architecture is equipped with endurance to natural and man-made disasters in addition to artistical element. Because result of such a durable technology is gotten more from historic accumulation of empirical creating than artistic conception, accomplishment of artisan accounts for major ratio from this point.
  When a sculpture and a painting respectively become a "doll statue" and a "pictorial diagram" as an independent existence with detachment from architecture, its relation with the spatiality gets thinner, but its possibility to become an artwork grows by increase of opportunity for exposure to an expression of view of the world of creator, because it is brought into his/her individual creating in atelier.

  Architecture does not only give a special meaning to the ideal way of sculpture and painting merely, because it can have huge space inside it, but also it gives composite art some kind of influence. As above-mentioned, because composite art did not have a recording medium such as film for a long time, it continued to be preserved in memory of people in the form of performance. Therefore, because of continuation of composite art, it needs a place, i.e. a theater for staging by all means, this theater is none other than architecture. Paraphrasing it, composite art needs architecture as the place of realization by all means.
  As above-mentioned, sculpture and painting provide settings to this performance, but it is difficult to say that these are indispensable absolutely to performance. However, except for impromptu street entertainment, existence of theater is indispensable to performance of drama.
  Apart from setting, theater holds a drama inside it. This is the same outward appearance of architecture's holding sculpture and painting, but because drama practices an expression of the spatio-temporal as composite art, it can include an element, the temporality, which architecture cannot participate in originally. It is more correct to say that this is encounter than inclusion. In other words, the temporality that drama springs through architecture as theater is overflowed outside and it becomes a window to time. The other fine art such as sculpture and painting cannot do such a thing.

  Architecture is not composed of only one building. It is given a role in group of plural buildings from outside as a part in the whole. Seeing historically, because human being does not live apart individually and makes a colony with group, architecture is made collectively first as well. However, whether the collective is naturally accomplished or deliberately accomplished is different qualitatively. Existence of powerful political power regulates the whole colony is indispensable for deliberate formation of a colony.
  If this political power does not exist or is weak, only a natural colony exists there. If there is strong political power and moreover it has a definite plan about method of formation of a colony, a natural colony changes into an intentional colony. We define this intentional colony as "city" specifically.
  It is impossible that all areas become intentional colonies in actual city. That one piece of power perfectly regulates a city all over exceeds the ability of human being, no matter how strong it is. However, because some political power always derives if human being gathers, so-called complete natural colony will hardly exist as well. Therefore, actual city holds both of intentional colony and natural colony inside it.
  As for a building which is formed in natural colony, because there is none intentional plan in its aggregate, it is ordinary that the intentional reorganization of space is not seen individually as well. Therefore, such a kind of architecture almost does not become one as fine art. On the other hand, if some individual building is made intentionally, because there is the reorganization of space in it necessarily, it becomes architecture as fine art. If being architecture individually, it still continues to be architecture even if it separates from city.
   It is possible to say that the town planning which holds the aggregate of architecture which is typical space art inside it more and reorganizes huger space is maximum and supreme fine art. However, it was political power to practice this work and there was very little room in which artists participated. Therefore, this biggest artwork had not almost been brought up for discussion of fine art history.
   It is from entering in the 20th century when city got to be planned purely and intentionally for the first time, for instance in New Delhi in India and Brasilia in Brazil. Also, it is the same time when architect got to take part in the town planning even partially. Therefore, it is possible to say that present time is the dawn of a new age when the town planning is put in the category of fine art and its history is told.

New Delhi
New Delhi

   Since city is the aggregate of buildings, it has consubstantial incorporation different in meaning from the above-mentioned conceptual incorporation of fine art. Specifically, the clearer the town planning is, the more this incorporation is strengthened. If the incorporation is strengthened, some kind of the mind dwells there and organic development is seen in it.
Artist was rarely clear aware of the conceptual incorporation of fine art, because the spatiality in the root was not always self-evident. However, since the set of architecture in city is obvious sensuously, the consubstantial incorporation is easily awakened. Therefore, in the place where there is a city, organic sign which is track of development of this consubstantial incorporation is always made in some form.
  It is none other than street and piazza. Street is circulation course where city habitants move and also is implement by which function of city is used as a whole. Piazza is market in a wide sense where city habitants gather and exchange various conveniences and also is the place to be aware of the ideal way of city as community.
  Because colony part made in city naturally is the place where daily economic activity of habitants was prevailed, its street is like vein as circulation course and its piazza is internal organ as market. Because colony part made intentionally is the place where political activity by power is executed, its street is nerve and its piazza is nervous node. Specifically, central piazza will become a brain.
  In this way, street and piazza in city become organic mark of the mind appears with the consubstantial incorporation which covers the whole city. Seeing from this bio-function, each building becomes a cell. Because the identical organism needs self-confirmation continuously, this action exists in city, too. It is none other than festival. Then, a festival in city is necessarily held at street and piazza because it acts along this uniting function.
  Incidentally, street had become a roadway from a sidewalk with progress of civilization, and it is not necessary to add many words to the fact that also a railroad, a water main, an electric wire, a telephone circuit and so on, are a kind of street. An assembly hall, a public hall, a public display place, church and so on, which city habitants use freely are piazza accompanied with building, and public local television becomes piazza made in the electromagnetic field.
  Each architecture in city undergoes influence from street or piazza which manages the overall function of city. If it is straight, in other words, in case that architecture pulls a road to itself and decides a shape of piazza, we define the building as "station hall" specifically. Political power carries out a town planning intentionally will always create this station hall as its headquarter. Oppositely, architecture which is decided its location by street and is under restriction of exterior on the view is only passive existence prescribed by city. We define such a building as "mansion".
  "Station hall" getting huger, it creates a new small city inside it like mitochondrion in a cell. We define such a huge station hall as "block hall". Inside of the block hall becomes an intentional colony necessarily. The block hall such as Saint Peter's Basilica in Rome and Angkor Wat can become like a small city even if it is separated from city.

St Peter's Basilica
St. Peter's Basilica
Angkor Wat
Angkor Wat


Neuschwanstein Castle

"Mansion" can be separated from city but in this case it changes qualitatively and it becomes merely "residence". No matter how splendid and huge a building is like Neuschwanstein castle of Bavaria, it is only a "residence", if being constructed individually in the mountains.

 As mentioned above, generally, architecture is made in city and undergoes various influences from there but it must never always been accompanied to city. In case that the reorganization of space is seen in material, even if it is separated from there, it continues to still be architecture. But, wherever it is constructed, architecture must be one of which inner space and outer space are always reorganized double.
  It is concluded from artistic purpose and nature of architecture. Artistic purpose of architecture is the fact that it includes the other art style and composite art inside it. If seeing from pure aesthetic viewpoint, the other purpose, e.g. the things such as that prestige of monarch is politically shown and guaranteeing comfortable habitability functionally only reinforces artistic purpose. As long as it includes the other art style, the construction of space to give significance to the inclusion and to deepen it more must be accomplished.
  Nature of architecture is relevancy with the above-mentioned city. Owing to this, architecture is required to equip with definite style in the relation with area where it is placed and then street and piazza in its outward appearance as a cell in city. Also, the fact that architecture includes the other art style inside it has an influence on its outward appearance. The reason is that it assumes audiences attend to theater, and the audiences become appreciators of outward appearance of the building of the theater before entering into there, if it is not suitable for inclusion of art, the reorganization of inside does not conclude as well. Speaking in another way, the artistical mind which creates architecture is complete as one life by piercing its inside and outside.
  The construction which does not have inner space is an art object which is only seen from outside, and it is only a huge sculpture, even if no matter how big it is and it has an outward appearance like building. Even if there is inner space, the one which is supposed to be mere cave in the relation of lighting is same. This example can be found in Borobudur Buddhism monument in Indonesia and a lot of Brahmanism temples in India. It is proper to name such constructions "structured sculpture"..

Borobudur Buddhism Monument
Brahmanism Temple
Brahmanism Temple

Pyramid in Egypt
   It might be proper that the construction, like as pyramid in Egypt, which is difficult to enter in its inner space, and which has only disordered and remarkable unbalance stairs and cells here compared with outside which is excellently reorganized by plain and simplified geometric elements, and which is impossible to see all of them clearly because of poor lighting, is called "insufficient architecture", even if it is narrowly included in the category of architecture.
  If supposing that such a building was made to show the dignity of certain political power, such a power might cause functional insufficiency and must have extinct immediately like the artistical mind appeared at the building. If it was made as the one unrelated to political power or it was planned as huge sculpture, we can read a hidden wisdom of ruler in it.
Statues of Tomb of Shi-Huang-Di
Shi-Huang-Di 1
Shi-Huang-Di 2
Si-Huang-Di 3
  How shall we think about the buildings equipped with inner space reorganized after minute planning despite lack of outside space? For example, it is not possible to say a complete architecture, even if there is an extravagant huge palace in underground like statues of tomb of  Shi-huang-di in the Qin Dynasty,
and the polish things in the utmost technical skill with countless statues are buried there. The reason is that conclusion of the artistical mind piercing inside and outside is not seen here. This should be called "semi-architecture".
  Seeing examples all over the world, there are many places where such "semi-architecture" is made in tomb or seclusion for ascetic training. In other words, "semi-architecture" is used when wanting to show as a form that a dead person monopolizes live remembrance or a half dead person turns back on life. In any case, the unfinished artistical mind which dominates "semi-architecture" is piling symbol of death with posture to renounce completion personally.

This text should not be translated into any other languages without autor's permission.

Written and Translated by Taketoshi Murayama.
Original translation is rewritten by CT

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