Immanuel Kant defined time and space as a priori forms that appear in our sensibility.
Since Kant was interested only in the mechanistic natural science, as a point of deperture
of his thought, he mainly regarded time and space merely as basis for the
empirical positivity of human reason. Therefore, in his view, sensibility
is limitedly equivalent to sensation which provides materials of experimental
science for the idea.
However, time and space are important logic categories permeating the entire
human mind, and they may even be rooted at the basis of metaphysics as
the necessary condition for logic. Therefore, these two categories provide
the most important criterion in the analysis of art type and function as
a first step for its understanding of Homology. (Kant had a keen eye in
transforming time and space from the objective criteria for classification
into a subjective attribute, in criticism against Aristotle's category.)
and space relate to the whole human mind and serve to classify the art type,
then it can be said that they go beyond being merely a sensibility that
provides proof for positive science; they are a priori forms of intuition that
even hold revelation within their confine.
Intuition transcends the human subject as a mere holder of idea, and for
the Existence whose conscience is turned to the existence (the real); it
provides the path for the recognition of this very existence (the real).
This path shows the place where the Existence receives the indication from
the Superior Being, who is irreplaceable for the Existence. We define it
"field," universal to every Existence.
This "field" is a peculiar encountering point where the Existence meets the existence
(the real), and there, time and space are limited together from the beginning.
This limitation happens at the same time and it rejects any separation
by analytical reason. More accurately, the detachment of time and space
by analysis brings the deformation of the "field."
speaking, time and space for intuition in general are always integrated as
spatio-temporality. This interestingly accords with contemporary physics after
the theory of relativity, which changed the concept of classic dynamics from
its foundation, proving that time and space in natural science are integrated
in a continuum of space-time.
regarded art as acting on a sentiment completely different from science, and
tried to solve the mystery of why this would hold any universality. However, if
these two both relates to life, having time and space as their basis, then
there is a possibility of discussing all the values in the same ground. It is
naturally conceivable that the world-view of the 18th century when
inorganic dynamics was equally placed with natural science differs from the
world-view of the present time in which science approaches until the root of
the mystery of life.
If "field's" most important meaning rests on it being the encounter with revelation,
then it represents the most important place for a religious as well. However,
pursuing universality at the same time, a religious cannot help hesitating
in sticking to the "field," which has a strong color of individual.
On the other hand, for an artist who brings personal experiences to the
fore and has little doubt in explicitly expanding it into the experience
of the whole humanity, the adherence to the "field" is a privilege and also a pride. Hence, the artwork as the product of artist's practice is also strongly influenced by the structure of the "field," and here we find the significance of analyzing/clarifying his/her artwork
from the "field."
If "field" is the spot of integration of time and space, the reader will easily understand the importance of re-capturing art from the spatio-temporality. This paper will, from this point of view, analyze and clarify the unified principle that permeates all art, and will examine how it developed in the history of humanity; this will surely lead to a deeper understanding of this mental work called art.
We already described that division of attribute united in
certain substratum produces different one and that it destroys original
incorporation of the substratum. However, if not forgetting first original
incorporation constantly and continuing to recognize clearly that divided
attribute is only a moment leading it, division of attribute is useful
for deeper understanding of the incorporation of the substratum. In addition,
if we can grasp even the nature peculiar to the divided attribute, the
synthetic incorporation will gain more abundant contents.
Therefore, at first it is important for a process of clearing the essential
ideal of art which is prescribed by the structure of the "field"
to analyze the "field" from time and space which are the attribute
of it and to investigate the way that each contributes for art activity.
Then, it is needless to say that this must be integrated in the form of
art of time and space as final completion of the third step.
Anyone can understand
easily that two types such as time art and space art are brought as the way of prescription
of art derived from the analysis of this time and space. These two types are
perceived as art field which is clear divided in the level of our daily
experience. And also anyone can consent easily that space art means the whole fine
art and that a representative of time art is music.
Hence the purpose of this small thesis is to
elucidate the meaning of fine art for human race, of course, it investigates what
is space art. Then, as above-mentioned, since space is united with time
originally and the complete understanding about it accompanies the recognition of
time, we will state additionally about the outline of time art as long as necessary.
Either space art or time art, all art uses material. As for
space art, this material has physical stable existence and as for time art, it
becomes energy. Then, the material creates contents of each art. However, since
time and space are mere a priori form of the intuition, saying in other words,
it does not include contents in itself at all. It is a matter of course that
because this very content is an element to distinguish identify of an
individual work for an appreciator in addition to a creator of art, this
attracts attention most. Then, we cannot deny that eagerness to find the
essence of the things in the place to which the most attention is paid is the
proclivity of perception of human being.
Therefore, in the past,
it is no wonder that a lot of statements about art paid little attention to simple
forms, such as time and space. However, the essence has two kinds such as the
individual essence and the universal essence. The individual essence only
teaches an individual existence, we must reach the universal essence to grasp
overall phenomenon totally. Then, no matter how it is covered with a formal outward
appearance, if the essence lying behind there, we must continue to irradiate
light of reason there.
Of course, all creators process the material which forms contents of work. Therefore, his/her consciousness and ardor are paid to this material. In this case, on his/her consciousness, time and space have hidden in the rear of this creation act. However, the creation activity has two kinds. One is the activity which stamps certain world with a material, the other is the activity which repeats specified style. The first made one of the specified style is a stamp of the world, but, becoming a legend and norm in the specific vocational group, it changes into the fixed style, in other words, the dead world, that is to say, a wreckage of the world. A notice must be given in "the world" described here because the special meaning different from normal usage is contained. At first we are necessary to give definition in this "world".
which an individual creator stamps directly to the material is expression of
his mind and it is a reflection of the living "world", i.e. uplifting
life. In this case, existence of "the world" closes on the creator
and he/she is conscious of it frequently. "The world" is none other
than a shape in which above-mentioned the spatio-temporal is embodied. Speaking
in another way, the ensemble of the contents with a special meaning which the
Existence of a creator received in his/her "field" in the frame of
the spatio-temporal is "the world".
In other words, "the world" is the moment of creation
of creator and the form of realization. The creation holds "the
world" must be strictly distinguished from the creation in which it is
fossilized. Then, we call the person who performs the creation which contains
"the world" an artist and the person who performs the creation in
which "the world" is perished an artisan.
For the artisan,
material is everything. Therefore, for him/her, the spatio-temporal has no
meaning. However, by all means, the artist cannot help viewing the
spatio-temporal which is the formal and essential attribute indispensable for
"the world" located in the source of his/her creation. Therefore, he/she
once looks back upon the meaning of the spatio-temporal at least.
Thinking in this way, we can define that the
art is an occupation making "the world" which is announced to an
individual Existence as an artist through "the field" a work by
storing it in a formal frame called the spatio-temporal. Because the
spatio-temporal is formal, it never elucidates characteristic of an individual
artist but it distinguishes acts of artist in general. (We put quotation marks
to "the world" which has a special meaning in the relation with this
creation of artist in the following description. Incidentally, when a term, the
view of the world, is used, "the world" which was defined here is
used, but we do not put quotation marks to it specifically, because this words
are a set phrase.)
As above-mentioned, space art and time art are distinguished on
the concept as well as from the characteristic of material. It derives from the
fact that artwork needs to be recorded on a certain medium. The only filmed actual
world in the spatio-temporal can be recorded as a form which can be recognized in
the sense of the other persons, otherwise it is sometimes recorded to the
memory of human beings. However, the technology of audio-visual media appeared
in the end of the 19th century in the history of human race. On the other hand,
art creations continue to be performed for about one hundred and fifty
thousands years since Homo sapience appeared on the ground.
In short, it is possible to say that medium which records the world directly
hardly exists in the art history of human race. In the long dark times
when there is no medium to record the spatio-temporal, human race could
not find other way than performance to express the spatio-temporal. On
the situation of lack of a
medium which can record the spatio-temporal, we must endure with a medium
which can record only either time or space. Therefore, in most of the history
of art, human race was forced to specialize space art and time art on technical
reason in case of leaving a work in the fixed form. (The special meaning
of recording medium in art was elucidated by Walter Benjamin early in the 20th century for the first time.)
As mentioned above,
material of space art is physical stable existence and that of time art is
energy. Physical stable existence becomes a record as it is because of its
permanent existence. However, record of energy needs a technology which
converts this into visible sign and it needs progress of advanced science. The
difficulty of recording an actual world in the spatio-temporal mainly depends
on this hardness of recording material of time art.
Since each artist was
seldom conscious of the formal frame such as time and space in a body, space
art and time art was considered as entirely different type historically and
there is no thought and system bridging both. In the ancient times of the Western
countries, music was tied up with philosophy or mathematics and in the medieval
times, it became an indispensable culture of freemen, but fine art was buried
in the craftsmanship for a long time and was regarded as unrelated with the
learning. In the Orient music was tied up with poetry and the position of fine art
was same as the Western countries. Both in the Orient and the Occident, on the
stage where the spatio-temporal was performed directly, they met each other
Due to such a physical limitation of
expression medium, fine art and music were considered as independent art field from
the early time and separate experts were produced respectively. But, no one was
clearly conscious of the fact that each of them essentially concerns time and
space as an element of the spatio-temporal. However, since to argue about the
whole art in a body has no concerning for the realization of individual work,
and it did not almost have influences on creation activity and appreciation,
and it only satisfied a pedantic hobby of partial philosophers and highbrows,
lack of consciousness of this was never an obstacle for formation of art.
If grasping fine art and music from the universal essence separated
from an individual work and creation act, they are defined as space art and
time art. Then, space art is intentional processing of space, if saying
moreover; it is called the reorganization of original space given by nature.
The same definition can be given to music in respect of time.
Thinking from this definition, the reorganization of space, the most suitable
style for space art is none other than architecture. However, observing
historically, architecture was always handled as far from art. In Western
Europe, sculpture and painting were picked up as art education object of
Academy but architecture was excluded from this by reason of strong practicality.
In the Orient, this is entirely considered only as accumulation of craftsmanship,
(St. Denis Basilique
in France designed by
As mentioned above, it is natural that sole control of workman technique
separates architecture from the category of art because of his/her lack
of view of the world. However, if there is actually a person who has clear
view of the world besides workman, for example Abbot Suger who indicated the conception of style of Gothic architecture, as far as
his/her creation act is thought to be accomplished, there is no reason
for denying to call it art.
However, the reason why
architecture has been excluded from art for a long time might lie in the point
that the spatial reorganization which appears most conspicuously there was not
considered as fruit of creation act poured into material because of its formality.
The object of creation becomes denser material in sculpture. Therefore,
because consciousness of material accompanies process of space in consequence
of their unification, space loses its originality more and more. In this
point, taking notice of the transformation of space surrounding material
is attended with the difficulty equal to understanding gravity as warp
of space-time in the general theory of relativity. We will wait for long historical time and appearance of special genius
to obtain this revolutionary recognition.
Since reproduce of an object to full plane is basic in painting,
the spatiality is easy to be conscious paradoxically. The just reason is
that the natural existence for reappearance object exists always in the
three-dimensional space. Therefore, because lack of the dimension in drawing
surface occurs continuously to the mind of painter, technique which complements
this is forced to be contrived for him/her and spatial recognition is compelled
to be aware in its process.
However, ironically, the
painter who excels in reappearance technique needs not to feel the necessity to
consider the spatiality theoretically, because he/she can complement the lack
of the dimension easily by a fingertip-drawing act. Therefore, if every painter
would be excellence, the nature of painting as space art might be difficult to
be conscious on the contrary. Specifically, the more severely a painter disciplines
technique for the object reappearance only by plaster sketching, the stronger
such a tendency will grow. It is caused on ground that the spatiality in
sculpture has the highest nature of concealment.
In this case, if he/she
awakes to reappearance of setting, specifically correct reappearance of the
building placed there, through the spatiality dwelt in this thing which is a
product of typical space art, the nature of painting as space art can be
grasped analogically. Historically discovery of perspective in Western Europe at
the close of the medieval times brought this, in this case, reappearance of
contents being emphasized, grasp of the spatiality had been weakened on account
of consciousness to technique.
also the mathematical strictness which inheres in this technique charmed
persons concerning to fine art, by the reaction to painting's not being regarded
as the learning for many years, it drove them to the direction which deepened a
degree of absorption to technique moreover. On such a reason, the environment
to make people conscious that painting is space art vividly is seldom arranged.
The reconstruction of space in photograph is not so outstandingly.
This new art style which has history of only one hundred and fifty years
was a mere complement of the representational paintings originally. The
ideal of the representational paintings is perfect reappearance of object,
speaking in another way; it has extremely little will which remodels an
In photographs, only
complements of the representational paintings, the will for reconstruction of
object is weakened more than in paintings. In case of paintings, because painter
him/herself must build color and line with his/her hand, it sometimes heads for
will of reconstruction of object. However, it is only setting a position of
light source and photographer that can be operated in photograph. In case of
scenery photograph, because the position of light source becomes given, only
the position of photographer can be chosen.
It is only using space
that photographer searches his/her photographing point, even if he/she does it as
far as possible. It is possible to say that this act, using space, is distant
from reconstruction. Therefore, by expanding meaning of the word, reconstruction,
at the maximum, the scenery photograph can be barely put in the category of
space art. In any case, except for photo collage, it may be possible to say
that photograph is the thinnest passive expression form in the inclination to
On the other hand, in painting, by operating the attribute of color, reconstruction
of space can be done even in a landscape. Expressing a position of light
source in value and expressing a distance between a light-reflected thing
from light source and an observer in chroma, the psychological volume of
space where painting spreads can be built. Generally, the drawing objects
of paintings become light-reflected one from light source. It is sufficiently
possible that light source becomes main drawing object without reflected
thing apart from the case to painting the sun directly. "The Blinding
of Samson" of Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn, "Repenting Magdalene" of Georges La Tour, and "Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes" of Artemisia Gentileschi may be typical examples. In this case, only value comes into question,
as for the construction of space, it is never different from case of the
The Blinding of Samson
Judith and Her Maidservant with the Head of Holofernes
As for music which is a representative of time art, its material is undulation energy of the sound transmitted through air. The technology equal to film is necessary to record this directly, but it was recorded indirectly by using the note, a kind of the sign which has a feature like the language. However, in a lot of cases, it was reproduced by performance like the art which expresses the spatio-temporal directly. In this meaning, as for the historic thickness of performance for reappearance in music is equipped with philosophical carry much deeper than the improvisation, the irreversibility and the inter-subjectivity of intuitive grasp of Wilhelm Furtwängler.
Incidentally, because the reappearance by music performance
does not show a player, in case that an aspect of the player is far apart
from the played music, appreciator must either block off sight to keep
an image to receive from the music or devote it to amplification of favorable
As for dance which is another form of time
art, because there is not a correct indirect means for record as much as the
note, there is no other choice to permit change by verbal legend. However, to
the extent that importance of the act of reappearance by performance increases,
room of an ad-lib development at the stage will spread as well. By the way, the
thing which is expressed in dance is the movement energy of dancer.
Because the object expressed by art exists in the actual world,
it is possible to say that it is in the united spatio-temporal. With the
limitation of expression medium, the fact that only an object partially
located in time or space can be recorded was an actually unnatural phenomenon.
However, as aforesaid, human race didn't have means of recording the spatio-temporal
directly for a long time. Therefore, when expressing an object which exists
in the spatio-temporal, human race depended on the form called performance,
and were compelled to deal with extremely limited appreciators.
However, artist zest of
expressing the object exists actually in the spatio-temporal did not run out
and also their conation of showing it to more appreciators did not declined. If
there are many limitations, means of breaking it down is always contrived. The
thing invented here was a try to express the spatio-temporal in space art and
time art where record means somehow or other exists. This was accomplished from
the two directions such as introducing the temporality into space art or
introducing the spatiality into time art.
Space art is the act of expressing a specific situation of phenomenon at
some moment and time art expresses the change of phenomenon from certain
situation to another one. Speaking in another way, space art is an expression
act to concentrate to the specific moment and time art is an expression
act to connect plural pieces of moment. Saying this philosophically, space
art is an expression of "the term" and time art is an expression of "the relation". Using a mathematical analogy, it is possible to say that time art
is like derivatives and that space art is like primitive functions. Using a physics analogy, time art is like gage boson which transmits power such as photon, gluon, and weak boson, and space art resembles proton and neutron which is composed of quark.
The situation includes
above-mentioned physical stable existence and the change is caused by energy.
The situation can be grasped by sense but the change can be known by awareness
and memory of the identity. Both become object of the perception together but
state of appearance in the perception is different completely. However, the situation
and the change continue mutually. The change neighbors the situation and the situation
is cause of the change and result of that as well.
If it is so, it is not
so difficult to express some situation and a change which connects with it or
to express some change and a situation which has the causality with it. There
is a limitation in expression medium of space art and time art originally; it
can express this neighbor continuity sufficiently within the range of the limitation.
Saying concretely, by
drawing the scene in which a specific object is about to move to a following motion
in painting, some situation and a change which is caused from it can be
expressed. This can be expressed by a moving object and also things around it,
e.g. soaring earth under its foot or adjusting eye of a neighbor person to
front of its movement.
Doing in this way, drawing the spatiality
which an arrangement of phenomenon in some moment shows and a little time in which
it changes together, fragment of the spatio-temporal unification can be fixed
on canvas. Then, the actual world exists in the spatio-temporal becomes close
more and more possibly. Since an appreciator experiences the actual world in the
spatio-temporal like a creator, he/she can guess the spatio-temporal from a
fragment of the time dropped into a painting, however its way of expression is symbolic.
In this way, the fragment of the spatio-temporal shown in some specific
painting work propagates surely into a society.
Incidentally, at sculpture, such an expression of the spatio-temporal is
possible, too. However, sculpture is an art style in which only an object
exists and lacks a setting with which painting is equipped. Therefore,
introduction of time can be expressed only in change of the object and
the multilayered way using a setting like painting cannot be adopted. And
therefore, sculpture depends on an exaggerated motion and look of face
for an expression of the spatio-temporal expression like famous "Laokoon"
and "Dying Slave" more and more.
Then, since only a frame of setting exists in
architecture, unless changing this frame itself, it is impossible to introduce the
temporality. Even if putting such a change, since it is only a kind of a
natural phenomenon, it is not possible to cause a world of the spatio-temporal
calls an internal sympathy of human being. In this way, viewing the point that
the introduction of time is almost empty, it is possible to say the fact that
architecture is pure space art.
In case of doing an expression of the spatio-temporal in time
art like music, the operation completely different from the thing mentioned
above is accomplished. In this case because plural changing situations
appear, the identity and the disparity are contrasted. Then, a unifying
law must be made between these. Because an invariable one must be found
in the changing situations to introduce the spatiality, it is entrusted
to construction of the identity. West European music was enthusiastic to
create this identity. Then, tonic as mastering sound and scale arranged
on it and then decision of tonality through consonances on scale create
the firm identity to changing melody.
scale structure being made relatively on all sounds by invention of
temperament, reaction to more various changes becomes possible by discovering
the bigger identity including free modulation.
Due to the identity of tonality
and the control of tonality by temperament, the spatiality is introduced into
the temporality expressed by the changing melody. In an actual creation, by
constant appearance of chords, this identity is embodied on the sense of
hearing as well. The appreciator is continuously forced to listen to the
construction of sound in this scale and tonality, they are conscious of this as
an emergence of the spatio-temporal in music.
Seeing from different angle,
non-West European music which does not have such a systematical scale and tonality
is almost weak in the point of introduction of the spatiality. It only
reconfirms a direction of unstable melody. Exclusive of the meaning to renounce
the introduction of the spatiality completely and to show an antithesis to the constructiveness
of West European music, such music satisfies an ethnic nostalgia only.
Using a dissonance and
a chromatic scale inside West European harmonic system more, because the unification
of its system is fluctuated, power of the spatiality created by it is rapidly
weakened. This was a conscious rebellion inside West European music, and it
appeared in the first time at the step to be felt that the sticking spatiality
in music became more oppressive than endurable limit. It is interesting that this
movement occurred at the same time of resistance against suppression of Academy
in the world of fine art.
By the way, there is an
important element called rhythm in music in addition to melody. As compared
with that melody has the room in which it is absorbed to the spatial constructiveness
through chord, because the more the contents of rhythm becomes abundant, the
more a way of carving time becomes various, the temporality was more strengthened
only. Speaking in another way, the temporal nature of music is appeared most
conspicuously in rhythm. Therefore, it is natural that West European music
which is enthusiastic in pursuing an expression of the spatio-temporal has weak
interest in rhythm compared with non-West European music. West European music
creates the huge harmonic system whereas its rhythm is monotonous surprisingly.
In case of dance, because its expression
medium is a human body, it appears as heavy stable existence from the
beginning. Because it always stands predominantly to movement energy of dancer,
the spatiality can be easily introduced only by fixing a posture of dancer. However,
because the existence of human body itself does not indicate so big spatiality,
there is a limit in the width of an expression of the spatio-temporal from this
As above mentioned, because artists always had a strong desire
to leave the phenomenon exists actually in a world of the spatio-temporal
on even the limited recording medium, they tried to leap to expression
of the spatio-temporal by even bringing an opponent element into space
art and time art.
However, as described
previously, owing to the emergence of film medium which can record a world of
the spatio-temporal directly since the end of the 19th century, the artist was
released from such inconveniences. With it, the space artist got to pursue the
purer spatiality and the time artist got to pursue the purer temporality
respectively. It seems that, in the very early 20th century, the movement that abstraction
paintings only with color and line emerged and that dodecaphonic music
destroyed tonality by the roots flowered accorded with penetration of film
medium as record means of the spatio-temporal. In this way, expression of space,
expression of time and expression of the spatio-temporal gained a personal
activity area respectively from the side of recording medium.
Then, these theoretical distinctions became actual repartition. The art
which practices an expression of the spatio-temporal as composite art is
considered to be a separate style from space art and time art as pure art
in either concept or existence. Next, we must advance towards examination
of this new repartition of art.
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