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| Thesis|Thinking on Space Art|Glossary

Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 8

 

Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis

 


   Cave of Buddhist statue at Bamiyan

 

Bamiyan is a city and its vicinity situated almost in the central area of Afghanistan. The whole neighborhood is a ravine zone, a spindly basin stretching from east to west located in the Hindu Kush Mountains, called Bamiyan ravine. In Bamiyan city, excavation of Buddhist temple at a cliff in the suburbs began at around the 1st century under the rule of Bactria. Stone caves, exceeding 1000 in all, were made in the Bamiyan ravine, and excellent Buddhist pictures were drawn on the wall inside them. Among the Buddhist monuments of Bamiyan, particularly noted are two huge statues of Buddha of 55 meters and 38 meters in height, carved sometime around 4th to 5th century. The Buddhist culture of Bamiyan reached the summit of prosperity until the Muslim invasion

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


  Lincoln Memorial

 

The building constructed in Washington DC, commemorating achievements of Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), the 16th president of the U.S.A. The construction started in 1915 and completed in 1922. The whole building was designed in imitation of the Parthenon in Athens. Marbles used for fabrics of the building and sedentary statue of Lincoln, located inside the hall, were brought from various places related to Lincoln across America. Thirty-six pillars in the periphery at the commemoration hall stand for the number of the states which stayed in the federal government under Lincoln in the Civil War. Scripts from speeches of Lincoln are carved on the inner wall, and two wall paintings entitled " Reunion and Progress ", " Emancipation of a Race " are on display.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


 Atlantes  Caryatides

 

Figures provided as supports for shrines in ancient Greece. Atlantes are male statues, deriving from the name of Atlas who supported the heavens on his shoulder. The name of caryatides, female statues, originates in a place called Karyai; women there betrayed their motherland and took Persian side in the Persian war. They were sold as slave after the victory of Greece, and the name of Karyai was given to the figures holding a shrine as compensation for the crime. A typical example of Caryatides is found at Erechtheum of Acropolis in Athens. On the other hand, there seem to be no extant examples of building that contains Atlantes.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


   Chartres Cathedral

 


Towers of Chartres
Cathedral

The church located in the capital of Eure-et-Loir departement, a town in Centre region of central France, formally called as Notre-Dame Cathedral. It is known as the typical Gothic architecture, and the towers on both sides have different architectural styles reflecting the difference in the age of construction. A rose window at the facade and " Root of Jesse ", stained glass of the aisle, which shows Christ's family tree, are made on the basis of blue called " the blue of Chartres ", and are considered as a masterpiece of stained glass in the 13th century.


(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)






 Masaccio (Tommaso di Giovanni di Simone Guidi)

(1401-1428)   Italian painter

 

Giotto
Giotto di Bondone
Brunelleschi
Filippo Brunelleschi
Donatello
Donatello

Masaccio is the first painter who completed Renaissance painting in Florence. After having learned paintings with a severe form-grasping of Giotto di Bondone (1267-1337 Italian painter), while making it his own sill, he absorbed an accurate perspective from his contemporary architect Filippo Brunelleschi (1377-1446 Italian), and a full natural reappearance technique of human body from another contemporary sculptor Donatello (sDonato di Niccolotc.1386-1466 Italian) to complete Renaissance style of painting at a stroke. With this achievement, in spite of being short-lived, he left a huge mark on the fine art history and had an enormous influence on Renaissance painters to follow.

Alberti
Leon Battista Alberti
Michelangelo
Michelangelo Buonarroti

It is only in Italian Renaissance and the following baroque times that the conceptual integration of space art, namely, architecture, sculpture, and painting, was understood in the fine art history of human race. This integration was theorized by architect Leon Battista Alberti (1404-1472 Italian), but in creation of painting, it was practiced by Masaccio.

Accurate reproduction of the depth of architecture for background, just as it visually appears, as well as the massiveness of an object, insofar as it takes place on a plane, entails clear awareness of the space across both.

In this process, the nature of space art, which is the essence of fine art, is surely grasped. The integration of space art mastered in picture creating was finally practiced by Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564 Italian space artist) alone in all fields of fine art. It can be said that Masaccio made necessary preparation for it.

 

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


 Mitochondrion

 

A small organ in cell that consists of double vital membrane, being contained in all the eukaryotic whose cell has a nucleus. It has original DNA. The main function of mitochondrion is energy production by burning phosphorus with the use of oxygen, enabling each eukaryotic cell to consume energy efficiently and dramatically increase its activity. The part of basic matter surrounded by inner membrane of mitochondrion is called matrix, and the pleat part of membrane is called cristae.

From the evolutional viewpoint, the mitochondrion is thought to be gained by the symbiosis of aerobic bacterial cell with eukaryotic cell. The mitochondrion has original annular DNA, apart from the nucleus, and reduplicates itself in the case of segmentation. The mitochondrion has only about sixteen thousands bases in DNA, very few compared with the nucleus DNA summed up to about three billions bases. However, it mutates at a frequency of about once a ten thousands years, whereas nucleus DNA hardly changes. Because the mitochondrial DNA is fully used up in spermatozoon at a time of fertilization, it cannot be planted to a child in the paternal line; it is inherited beyond generation only among females of matrilineal line. It is possible to examine how the species branched or about when the branch was caused in the pursuit of this mitochondrial DNAfs unique way of change.

Being different from nucleus DNA, the mitochondrial DNA does not determine the species or the individual shape of creature, but is thought to give pure chemical functions to eukaryotic cells universally; it is a very interesting phenomenon that record of branch of the species can be maintained due to this simplicity.


(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


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