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| Thesis|Thinking on Space Art|Glossary

Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 7

 

Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis

 


   Edmund Burke

 

(1729-1797)    English politician, political philosopher

 

Burke is known as the most typical advocate of modern conservatism. He was serving as a

King George III
King George III

Member of Parliament when the Revolutionary War of America broke out, but in opposition to the politics of despotism of King George III at the time, he supported America's independence. Also, when the French Revolution broke out, with a hate for the idea of equality, he opposed rage of the French National Assembly and impeached it. His claim was consistent in the point of opposition to surpassing of any section of the government organization to destroy a balance with the other parts.

However, what he maintained in " A Philosophical Enquiry into the Origin of our Ideas of the Sublime and Beautiful " was quite opposite; he attacked the classical beauty framed by harmony and balance, by contrast, regarded romanticism led by senses and uplift as a beauty model. He might have clearly distinguished between reason in politics and sensibility in beauty. However, since politics as public affair and beauty as hobby are actually expressed in the same character, these two necessarily get mixed; the typical example of which is seen in his remark about " history and tradition ".

  Beauty relates to morality through culture, and morality becomes an idea for political practice. " History and tradition " and culture are inextricably linked. In other words, it was necessary for him as a moralist to combine public affair and hobby with use of " history and tradition " as a copula, but in this case, he himself did not seem to made a persuasive response on how to solve the above-mentioned contradiction of rational balance and romantic ardor. If there is a self-contradiction, it will be necessary to always have modesty to realize and come to a stand in front of it. In the case of him, who was entirely unaware of it, his arrogant self-affirmation concealed it. Then, when he was set up as a saint of conservatism, his self-contradiction was patched up, and his statements were separated from here by his successor and each scrap of them was often used at their convenience. In this point, he was an illustration of the evil when art and politics are confused, and was a forerunner of Adolf Hitler (1889-1945 German dictator).

   As a result, in addition to superficial historical romanticism, mass-produced were honorable conservatives who were extremely insensible to the slaughter under the name of culture by fascist, meanwhile sensitive to the slaughter under the name of reason like the French Revolution. This is as evil as the completely opposite advanced highbrows.

  Burke might have intended to include only art in " history and tradition ", but his favorite political systems, such as aristocracy or constitutional monarchy, and other elements have crept into it. The validity of these systems was never properly verified under the name of " tradition ". Also, in a country where his adherents were born and has no " tradition " of constitutional monarchy, his opinion will never have a power to pose an appropriate criticism to oligarchic aristocracy. Therefore, his statement borrowed by foreigner without criticism is almost deception.

Locke
John Locke
Hobbes
Thomas Hobbes
Cromwell
Oliver Cromwell

   The brilliant results that English contributed to the human race are: the thought of the resistance right and the revolution right of John Locke (1632-1704 English political philosopher), which were adopted in the Declaration of Independence; the worldly original sin theory of Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679 English political philosopher); and then practice of constructing republic by Oliver Cromwell (1599-1658 English politician), which made an opportunity to generate these thoughts. Compared with those, Burkefs statement only encouraged scoundrels masquerading as patriot.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


  Nikolaus Pevsner

 

(1902-1983)    German-born British art historian

 

Pevsner was a lecturer at Gottingen University in Germany, but immigrated to the United Kingdom in fleeing from Nazi and taught art history at Oxford University and Cambridge University. His major writings include " Academies of Art ", " An Outline of European Architecture ", " The Buildings of England " and " Pioneers of Modern Design ". Also, by contributing to " The Architectural Review " magazine, not shutting himself into academism, he informed public of his extensive knowledge of architecture.

  He was persevered in research on architecture of the United Kingdom since before he left Germany. His primary interest turned toward Gothic, which was the dominant style in his homeland Germany. He might have found its source in the architecture of the United Kingdom. He theoretically put the British architecture in order from outside with a German observant eye.

  Gothic style occurred in France but flowered mainly in the United Kingdom, the reason of which is that, in the English architectsf mind, there were some elements getting closer to the essence of architecture than just copying the style superficially. The gardening, which occurred in the United Kingdom, will speak for itself. Here, natural vegetations, as material to reorganize space, are ordered architectonically as they are. It differs substantially from usual architecture where all of the materials are artificial. In other words, the architecture, for the English, means constructing space, not material.

  The French produced Gothic architecture, but adopted it solely to church architecture. In worldly architecture, they completely depended on renaissance and baroque styles, being satisfied with rococo style, a dwarfish and provincial noble fashion. Meanwhile, the English could apply Gothic style to the earthly architecture. They seemed to have accurately mastered the essence of this style.    Pevsner had a perceptive insight directing his attention to the sense of the English, who arrived at the essence of this architecture, from an early stage. Gothic style was born in France, but it can be said that it was made by not only the French but the Teutons, who is the common ancestor of French, British and German. The progressive guide spirit of this Teutonic style, he thought, dwelt in the United Kingdom.

  The essence which he found in the Teutonic architecture has proper universality over Iranian Islam architecture, Japanese architecture and others in addition to three major styles which compose European architectures such as Gothic, Roman Etruscan basilica and Greek temple. However, spatiality, the essence which he found in architecture, was not extended to the other branch of space arts.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


 The projection plan   The perspective plan

 

The projection plan is a plan on which the three-dimensional space is convincingly presented on the two- dimensional plane. It creates illusion as if therefs a space in the plain by picturing things nearby big and the others in the distance small. The perspective plan is a plan on which each point that composes the outline of an object is reproduced by moving it parallel to another plane. The difference of distance from the plane to each point on the outline is not represented. For example, when the two objects-- one is one meter away and the other is three meters away-- are arranged at the same height, they are drawn as if to be neighboring each other on the projection plan; hence their positional relation against the screen is indiscernible on the plan.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


   Position vector

 

Vector is quantity with direction and magnitude. The direction and magnitude can be replaced with values of coordinates in a space where the vector is placed. Generally, as a given vector placed in n-dimension space has n-axes of coordinates, it can be defined by the n -value combinations.     When putting an arbitrary point as the origin of coordinates in some space, all the places in that space can be specified by a vector from this origin. This is position vector which specifies places in space.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


 Abu Simbell temple

 

Ramses II
Statue of Ramses II
Nefertari
Nefertari

A cavern temple in Egypt. The construction which Ramses II (B.C. 1304 - 1237 B.C.) of the 19th Dynasty built by digging a rocky mountain of sandstone at west coast of Abu Simbell located 280 km south from Aswan. It comprises the main temple for king himself and a small temple for queen Nefertari. The main temple contains eight god statues modeled on Osiris, six war pictures depicting a combat against Hittite and an epitaph. In the

Osiris
Osiris
Re-Horakhty
Re-Horakhty
Amon-Re
Amon-Re
Ptah
Ptah

sanctuary, there are four god statues (Re-Horakhty, Ramses {deified himself}, Amon-Re, Ptah). The god statues are put in the darkness but the morning sun lights up their whole body only twice a year, except Ptah, god of death, who remains in the darkness even on these occasions.

The small temple, situated on the north side of ninety meters away from the main temple, is twelve meters in height, twenty-six meters in width, and

Hathor
Hathor

twenty meters in depth. Six ten-meter-tall statues stand in front, four are meant for king, and two for queen. There are pillars of twelve goddess Hathor statues in the first room, and each has a story of the king and the queen. The picture of the wall illustrates a king scarifying captives to god, with a queen standing to serve him. In the third room (the sanctuary), there is a picture of dedication offering, and an image of Hathor disguised as a cow is found at the center of back of the room.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)







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