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| Thesis|Thinking on Space Art|Glossary

Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 5

 

Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis

 


 Gage boson

 

The particle that causes four kinds of force existing in nature: graviton generates gravity, photon does electromagnetic power, weak boson does " weak interaction ", and gluon does gstrong interactionh. Their existence, except graviton, has been confirmed.

Non-life inorganic materials are ultimately reduced to two, existence and force. Gage boson is the root creating the force, and also called Bose particle (Boson). On the other hand, the root of the existence is called Fermi particle (fermion). (Fermi particle is divided into baryon with large mass, such as nucleon, and light lepton such as electron and neutrino.) As for Bose particle, plural particles can exist in a specific quantum condition, whereas Fermi particle, only one particle exists. To put philosophically, Fermi particle is a particle of the term, Bose particle is a particle of  the relation.

Gravity arises from existence itself and other forces are pure force. Because the existence and the force are considered as an obvious singleton, gravity and other forces are thought to be of fundamentally different kind. Therefore, three kinds of the forces excluding gravity were explained

Einstein
Albert Einstein

together by Grand Unified Theory. Construction of the theory explaining four kinds of the force together including gravity remains the last challenge in physics, to the pursuit of which Albert Einstein (1879-1955 German-born American physicist) devoted his last years.

" Super string theory " was proposed as the most influential hypothesis for this last theory. According to this theory, there are physical ten dimensions and, those remaining in the natural world are only one dimension of time and three dimensions of space. The rest of six dimensions cannot be observed because they are confined to very narrow place.

  Because " super string theory " presupposes that graviton exists, if this is denied, another hypothesis may become necessary. Also, if the preternatural dimension makes another world and the particle which exceeds light velocity like tachyon, for instance, exists there, causality of the natural world itself will be overturned.

Leaving aside this theory is right or wrong, if we try to explain the mystery of gravity, there is possibility that physics will prove that the immaterial dimension exists. If so, thus far physics has dealt only with the material existence and has become the last authority for the positivist as a trump to deny the immaterial existence, but its role will convert quite contrary.

 

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Proton   Neutron

 

Proton and neutron are the members of hadron consisted of quark and gluon, and also particles called baryon, the constituent of an atomic nucleus having a long life existence. Proton is composed of two up quarks and one down quark, and neutron is composed of one up quark and two down quarks. Neutron releases and absorbs meson inside atomic nucleus, interconverting with proton in about fifteen minutes. Outside atomic nucleus, neutron is unstable and converts into proton, electron and antineutrino in about fifteen minutes by the beta decay. Proton is thought to exist semi permanently both inside and outside of atomic nucleus. (The proton decay is predicted to happen by " Grand Unified Theory " but this phenomenon has not yet been observed.)

 The reason why the existence of proton is so stable is speculated that it has an electric charge. The electric charge, with positive and negative, creates the dual structure of the world, as contrasted with the annihilation of matter and antimatter when they met. Negative electric charge, i.e. electron, generates the light which composes a frame of the causality of the natural world by releasing a photon. It may be a reason for the stability of proton that the electric charge is closely related to the existence of the structure of the world in this way.

The number of proton, when being inside the atomic nucleus, determines the property of chemical element; this number of protons is called the atomic number. When more than one proton are gathered in an atomic nucleus, " strong interaction " must work so as not to be dispersed by the repulsion because each of them has positive electric charge. This " strong interaction " entails intervention by neutron to function; generally the equal number of protons and neutrons exist in an atomic nucleus. When the numbers of protons and neutrons in the atomic nucleus are not equal, the atomic nucleus becomes unstable, hence either of them decreases until it becomes equal with the other; this is the above-mentioned beta decay. When the beta decay occurs, electron or positron is released from atomic nucleus with antineutrino or neutrino. Since neutron has just a bit larger mass compared with proton, the difference can be changed into the energy of release of electron. Also, when proton in atomic nucleus captures surrounding electron and turns into neutron, it releases neutrino. In the case of a chemical element with large atomic number, the alpha decay, the release of a set of two protons and two neutrons (atomic nucleus of helium) from atomic nucleus, sometimes happens.

 Because proton exists semi permanently, hydrogen, whose atomic nucleus is composed of one proton, is the most stable material and is widely distributed over the metagalaxy. However, creation of various elements cannot be done only with proton, it can be achieved with neutronfs emerging and binding plural protons together in atomic nucleus; this action is caused by the nuclear fusion that follows the ultra high density of hydrogen. When natural nuclear fusion happens in the astrospace, it makes a fixed star. When the lifetime of this fixed star runs out and causes a supernova explosion, a diversity of chemical elements, which are composed inside it, are emitted and spread in the astrospace.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


  Richard Wagner

 

(1813-1883)    German composer

 

Germany in the 19th century was a time of internal strife over acceptance or rejection of the French Revolution, whether accept or repel it, romanticism bringing uplift of mind became dominant. Also, Germany in that time was at the height of civil war shifting political internal rifts to unification and foreign war, such an outward environment increasingly promoted romantic mood. He was born in the midst of such epoch, and his music was embodying it.

 The dramatic music was born in Italy, an unopposed place in the said area for a long time. Wagner exceptionally had a literary genius, so he had been displaying his talents in this area ever since he started his carrier as a composer.

 In Italian opera, vocal music holds a center position and singer almost dominates all. Therefore, the aria, in which a singer is most highlighted, attracts attention. Meanwhile, instrumental music and ensemble occupy the central position in German music, consequently the form of the dramatic music had to be refurbished as far as being based on this tradition.

Weber
Carl Maria von
Weber

  Such an attempt was done in the later period operas of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791 Austrian composer), and in the music plays of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827 German composer), Carl Maria Friedrich Ernst von Weber (1786-1826 German composer) and others, but they did not concentrate their genii only on the dramatic music. In this point, Wagner who made almost only dramatic music in lifetime was the musician suitable to complete German dramatic music.

In his music drama, each singer is merely one special musical instrument. The singer responses and unites with orchestral music and makes an ensemble like a concerto. The orchestral music is not merely an accompaniment, it suggests characters and a various allegories with theme melodies which he named " leitmotif ". This technique expresses the whole story as sounds, and makes the whole accompaniment one building of symphonic sounds. In this way, he could completely pull himself out of Italian dramatic music.

  The theme of his music drama was led by extremely moral motive in point of condemning his own corrupted human nature and of showing a personal view of art under the ancient German garment. However, because he revealed it in a long and grand process, the part contrary to his motive stood out reversely. Therefore, ironically, his work tended to be taken as if it were stirring up a debauched life or anti-Semitism, which hardly can be said that itfs a misunderstanding because it was evident that he privately disliked Jew. Also, he himself showed off immoral affairs in his real life to the public such that he forcibly made his extramarital affair an accomplished fact, and that he dissipated money to endanger the finance of the Bavarian kingdom, his patron.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


    The pure art   The pure fine art

 

In this paper, the pure art is a concept as against composite art, meaning each part which composes it: i.e. literature, music, dance, architecture, sculpture, painting and so on. The pure fine art means only architecture, sculpture and painting. This is a concept as against the decorative art. In this paper, " fine art " refers to only architecture, sculpture and painting. Also, the space art is a general term of the ones which belong to the pure fine art, and both are equal.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


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