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| Thesis|Thinking on Space Art|Glossary

Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 4


Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis


  The term @The relation


A special philosophical word used only in this paper. Questions about the existence were regarded

Martin Heidegger

as most important for philosophy from the time of Parmenides (544B.C.-501B.C Greek philosopher) to Martin Heidegger (1889-1976 German philosopher). Philosophy, therefore, has been paraphrased as consideration about the existence. However, as an afterimage of our daily consciousness adheres to this word, the existence, itfs not often separated from the psychologically familiar substance in spite of being situated in the ultimate area. For this reason, we have decided to use " the term ", which has the same philosophical semantic contents, as the appropriate concept for referring to more fundamental existence.

" The term " is the word applied to a calculated part tied by the operator in an equation. However, " the term " of the equation is also tied to the specific substance by being trailed by the concept of the qualitative elements used there and of the quantity found out from a set of the elements. The mathematical concept is obedient with the sense and never exceeds it. Consequently, after separating this word from the equation, what is rearranged as a concept to express most straightforwardly from an un-prescribed existence that exists before the substance, as an object of the pure consideration, is " the term ".

If " the term " is redefined as the one which shows ultimate existence straight in this way, it can be easily understood that naming a pure function that intermediates plural " terms " as " relation " is appropriate. " The relation " was thought of as a kind of the category by Immanuel Kant (1724-1804 German philosopher), too, but he placed it in a row with " the quality " and " the quantity ", and his thought was insufficient in point of not tracing it back to the pure existence.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


 Derivative    Primitive function


In a given continuous function, when its independent variable changes very minutely, a rate of the

Isaac Newton

quantity of dependent variable changes accordingly is called the coefficient of differential calculus. (This is equal to " difference quotient " as Sir Isaac Newton {1643-1727 English physicist} said.) This coefficient of differential calculus becomes a particular function prescribed by the independent variable, and this function is called derivative. If used the derivative as a standard, the function which calculates the derivative as the coefficient of differential calculus is primitive function; this is called an indefinite integral because of doing a converse calculation to find out the differential calculus.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)



In a supposition that the light has a certain momentum, photon is the quantum assuming as a particle which carries it. It has no mass and is a kind of gage boson which mediates electromagnetic power. Since it is recognizable directly through sense perception as the particle which mediates force, the existence of photon had been speculated from the early days. However, because the light is a wave motion at the same time, its contradictory property as being both wave and particle (wave-particle duality) had not been elucidated for a long time, which caused a big controversy in the physics, until the final solution was given by the quantum dynamics.

The existence and the force, the ultimate dual elements composing the natural world, are carried

James Clerk
Michael Faraday

respectively by Fermi particle (fermion) and Bose particle (boson). Saying philosophically, Fermi particle is a particle of the term, Bose particle is a particle of the relation. Photon is a typical Bose particle. However, as the electromagnetic equation by James Clerk Maxwell (1831-1879 English physicist) clarified, an electric field and a magnetic field prescribe each other and both are linked by an identical causality; this is a positive fact as can be seen in the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday (1791-1867 English chemist, physicist).

Electric field is generated by electron, and electron is a typical Fermi particle. Thus, Fermi particle and Bose particle, which are different originally, are linked by an identical causality in the electromagnetic wave. The light is a kind of the electromagnetic wave, and its close relation with electron is revealed more conspicuously in photoelectric effect where integrates photonfs properties as particle and as wave motion. In this way, the encounter and unification of physically heterogeneous elements make the light give rise to diverse peculiar phenomena.

Albert Einstein

Also, as Albert Einstein (1879-1955 German-born American physicist) clarified in  the general theory of relativity, in the contrast between mass and energy, which is the above-mentioned duality of existence and  force from another viewpoint, it is interesting that the light is affecting the deep link-ability of the two on the ground that both of them stand in the proportional relation with square of light velocity as coefficient. And because the light velocity is identical to all the movement systems, it forms the root of the causality as well. Then, because the light can be easily recognized through senses, it has given physicists a lot of mysteries to stimulate their inspirations from the early times.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

  Gluon   Quark


Nucleon and meson which compose atomic nucleus are generically called hadron. This hadron consists of quark and gluon. There are six kinds of quarks and as many antiquark corresponding to antiparticle. Nucleons such as proton and neutron are called baryon and consist of three quarks. Meson consists of quark and antiquark. Gluon is a kind of gage boson which mediates the force called " strong interaction " (the force that acts when two hadrons approaching each other beyond a certain distance) which joins quarks. Quark cannot be separated and taken out from gluon.

Quark is thought to be the ultimate particle, but it is still far from the simplicity which the ultimate-ness is supposed to have because there are as many as six kinds. However, since physics is not speculative learning, we must analogize everything from surely existing phenomena. In this case, it is the physical law that becomes the basis of certainty. Physics builds a theory model in generalizing the condition on which the physical law can hold good, and applying the attribute which shows the existence of particle to the term of an equation in which the law is described. Only when all the conclusions led from this theory model are proved, the model can be thought as true.

When a simple ultimate particle comes in sight to this true model, all physical phenomena will be systematized under the logical provability. We must endure quark and gluon as the physical ultimate existence till that time.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

  Weak boson


The particle producing " weak interaction ", the force to cause the beta decay, that is, release of positron or electron when proton or neutron decays. There are two kinds of boson: W boson which has a positive electric charge, and Z boson which dose not have an electric charge. " Weak interaction " occurs only if the particles approach each other within a certain distance like " strong interaction ". On the other hand, gravity and electromagnetic power propagate in the infinite distance. " Weak interaction " and electromagnetic power are supposed to be explained together by Electroweak theory (Weinberg-Salam theory), because weak boson and photon, by which these forces are produced, were not distinguished at the time of Big Bang.

Incidentally, according to a conclusion of this theory, Higgs boson that causes mass should exist everywhere in the universe but this has not yet been proved. If this Higgs boson exists, it may substitute for the former ethereal hypothesis. However, because the explanation of dynamic effect citing ethereal hypothesis and Lorentz transformation is consistent with the special theory of relativity, even if this particle exists, results of the explanation about phenomenon of movement would never change. However, it is certain that this theory, compared with the theory of relativity, deepens understanding about how materials exist.

Also, if " Grand Unified Theory ", which combines this theory and the quantum chromodynamics clarifying the nature of quark, is proved, all the force except gravity will be explained by the same theory. If this " Grand Unified Theory " is proved, the change of quark into photon will virtually cause the decay of proton, which is one of its theoretical conclusions, and the eternity of the material will no longer hold good.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

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