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| Thesis|Thinking on Space Art|Glossary

Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 3


Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis


 The general theory of relativity


Albert Einstein

A part of important physical law about time and space, proposed by Albert Einstein (1879-1955 German-born American physicist). It was presented in 1915 based on the special theory of relativity, released in 1905. The special theory of relativity contained the physical law which holds good among the coordinate systems moving mutually at the same velocity, starting from explaining the compatibility between the electromagnetic equation elucidated by James Clerk

James Clerk
Galileo Galilei
Isaac Newton

Maxwell (1831-1879 English physicist) and the movement relativity which Galileo Galilei (1564-1642 Italian astronomer) and Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727 English physicist) clarified without using ethereal supposition or the theory of Lorentz transformation. On the other hand, the general theory of relativity was an attempt to clarify the physical law which holds good among the coordinate systems with all kinds of the movement by introducing an acceleration system to it. The important results of this theory are that gravitational mass and inertia mass are equal, and that the mass warps time and space around it, and forms the gravity field. This theory has been proved right by the movement of elementary particles and numerous space phenomena. Yet, the gravitational wave, one of the results of this theory, has not been observed yet.

Unlike the case of the photon hypothesis released by Einstein himself, the characteristic of this theory is in the fact that it set out a number of unconventional hypotheses by introducing peculiar definitions on time and space in the process of constructing the theory system which consistently explains the valid laws and experimental data discovered by forerunners, in the relation of the existence against time and space, in spite of not answering the question about the essence of the existence and its ground. This unconventionality, as its rightness in physics was demonstrated, conversely evidenced to expose the bounds of ordinary peoplefs everyday sense; here lay his innovativeness forcing the fundamental alteration in the manner of thinking.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


 Rembrandt Harmensz. van Rijin


(1606-1669)    Dutch painter

Rembrandt is considered as one of the greatest portrait painter in all the fine art history of Western Europe, not to speak of Holland. In 1609, soon after he was born, his motherland Holland achieved independence from the Spanish rule by mental armament with Calvinistic Protestantism. The Protestantism brought the monotonous secular theme and the prosperity of the form of landscape and still life painting to the world of painting. However, natural genius of Rembrandt as a painter readily surpassed the limit of form as such exhibiting an excelled technique in the field of history painting early in his carrier; thereby he was able to win fame in the early stage.

Since history painting is the integrated painting which includes all the painting forms, preeminence in this field assured achievements in all the painting forms. Accurate literality of his portraiture is akin to the Italian Renaissance. The profundity in depiction of individuals appeared as

Dr. Tulp's Anatomy
Dr. Nicolas Tulpfs Demonstration
of the Anatomy of the Arm

many as one hundred self-portraits and the dramatic expression of the group image appeared in his early masterpiece, " Dr. Nicolas Tulpfs Demonstration of the Anatomy of the Arm " were the fruits of precise observant eye for human in general. Growing in the climate which cultivated keenness to the hue since Flanders,


he gained a perfect operation of color in general by vigorously introducing a shading of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610 Italian painter) style. Also, his sympathy for the subject shown by his interest in history painting was supported by insight into the inner-ness of a person, promising the aptitude to produce monumental works as a programme picture as well. This is unthinkable without the fusion of artisan spirit and scholarly sophistication of Rembrandt, as seen in his carrier, growing up as the son of a miller and studying at the Leiden University in his home.

In this way, talent, personality and environment enough to follow all the elements used for

Raffaello Sanzio

painting were prepared for him. His artistic genius concentrated only on the field of painting like

The Night Watch
The Night Watch

Raffaello Sanzio (1483-1520 Italian painter), but in regard to being equipped with the awareness of the realism which Raffaello could not have, he came to hold more extensive influence.

Most of the best ever capacity of this painter was poured into his most famous work, " The Night Watch ", but in spite of being an extremely popular genre painting in its theme, the mind behind the painting was too serious particularly for the client. With this as a turning point, his renown in his motherland gradually declined; but after all it underlined the panhuman value in his works and, at the same time, revealed the narrowness of Holland to the world.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 Georges de La Tour


(1593-1652) @French painter

Georges de La Tour worked mainly as a painter for the Franciscan Order for lifetime while he


served a local lord at Luneville in Lorraine region in France. Therefore, the whole picture of his painting career was not clear, and there are few numbers of works considered as his genuine works. He undoubtedly inherited the style of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610 Italian painter), but as there is not an obvious trace of his visiting to Italy, he might have grasped the essence of the way by a personal insight into fragmentary works.

Although he pictured some worldly group images for noble patrons, his main works are religious individual portraits filled with piety. However, these paintings of different genres were commonly drawn with the composition of solemn bright and dark. There are many works with domestic theme such as Christ's birth, Joseph and so on because he had a good family. Also, even silent eroticism can be felt from some left images of Mary Magdalena. With these works he might try to bring in tight bonds of family around Christ. His works were rapidly slipped into obscurity after his death, and it was not before the 20th century that their true value was recognized again.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

  Artemisia Gentileschi


(1593-1652/3)    Italian painter


A daughter of Orazio Gentileschi (1563-1639 Italian painter) who was a painter in Italy likewise. Her father Orazio was a contemporary of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (1571-1610 Italian painter) and was strongly influenced by his brush. His daughter Artemisia inherited the painting style of Caravaggio indirectly through her father, too. Her fatherfs digestion of Caravaggio was calm, whereas that of Artemisia was daring and dramatic reflecting her romantic temperament. The painting theme she adopted lacks the universal expansion in terms of being self-projective and having a bias towards allegorical depiction of the inside of oppressed women. However, it is possible to say that she occupies a peculiar position among Caravaggesque painters owing to freer use of color in addition to the shading.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

Wilhelm Furtwängler


(1886-1954)   German conductor

Furtwangler was born as the son of famous archaeologist Adolph (1853-1907). Having shown genius from his youth, he became a permanent conductor of the Berlin Philharmonic Orchestra in his thirties. Because of assuming a post of musical director of the Berlin National Opera House under Nazi administration, he was convicted as a war criminal after World War II, but later acquitted. After that, while holding an additional post of conductor of the Vienna Philharmonic Orchestra, he played an active part across the European continent.

Being a composer himself, he analyzed a whole musical work rationally and thoroughly from a viewpoint of composer, and elicited a precise interpretation of detail from there to establish a distinctive performance style under the original tempo setting. His temperament was formed in the atmosphere of the 19th centuryfs heroism and spiritualism, later combined with the intellectual music interpretation; these heterogeneous elements were united in his explosive performance.

Therefore, he found himself in the works of Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827 German composer) who had both classical decorum and romantic ardor, and devoted much energy to the performance of those works. Also, overlaying the tragedy of being half-compelled to cooperate with Nazi with determination of self-sacrifice to stay in his motherland, which headed for ruination in war disaster, he repeatedly gave performance filled with distress and verisimilitude.

In such severe experience, he was keenly conscious of the unity of performer and audience, and also improvisationality and historicity of the performance. Today, his brilliant achievements maintain an eternal life as numerous recordings in the way that goes against his real intention, but the paradoxical-ness, which the external evaluation is decisively different from the internal intention, will be associated with him forever.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

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