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Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 13


Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis


   The Ionic order


One of the three basic orders of Greek architecture. Ionia is the name of a region including west coast of Asia Minor and the neighboring archipelago on the Aegean Sea. The Ionians are those who thought to have immigrated to these areas from Athens, mainland of Greece, as the Dorians went southward around 1200 B.C. The Ionians are a generic term to refer to these emigrants who thought to be of miscellaneous linage.

The cities of the Ionians had been under the rule of Lydia in Asia Minor and that of Persia which advanced later, but they attained independence after the Persian Wars, and participated in the Delian League centered on Athens. The Ionians worshiped Apollo of the Delos Island as a common god. The Ionic order was established in the residential area of these Ionians and later spread to the whole area of Greece.

Nike Temple
the small temple of
Athena Nike
Erechtheum of Acropolis

Ionia, having a close relation to the east, saw the earliest flowering of civilization in Greece after the extinction of Mycenaean civilization. On account of showing relation to the east, this style is feminine, columns are thin and there are many vertical ditches on them. Bases and capitals are elaborately ornamented. It may have invented with association from tree. Compared with the Doric order, another style of architecture, it had flexibility and did not take up a fixed form until the classical age. Typical ruins of the Ionic order are found at the small temple of Athena Nike and Erechtheum of Acropolis.



(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

  Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart


(1756-1791)  Austrian composer


His musical style is no doubt that of the ancient regime, in contrast to Ludwig van Beethoven (1770-1827 German composer). Also, he was fully ignoring the French Revolution, which did not contradict the fact at all that he was a member of Freemason.

However, the influence of his music is beyond the times, overflowing outside the frame of the ancient regime; this is not only because his works are artistically excellent, but also have a lot do with the fact that he, as player and composer, accomplished them for the general citizen audience, in the friction with his employer Catholic archbishop and lack of understanding of Austrian emperor. In other words, his music is completely free from politics. This political indifference made him impecunious in the sunset of life and suffered tragic death.

He is known as the one bestowed with most excelling genius in the history of music as such anecdotes bear evidence of it: that he completed his first symphony at the age of six; he memorized a vocal music with nine voice parts in an instant and; finished writing an overture of opera within several hours. What is more, he left works in all forms and all types of music; he never leaned to either instrumental music or dramatic music, and also he was familiar with a harmony and a counterpoint.

Most of his music was made in clear and cheerful major keys, not reflecting his actual life at all. At this point, he was less literary than Beethoven. Meanwhile, a few pieces in minor provide a glimpse into grief and despair at the bottom of his heart and are more literary than any literary works. Then, this deep sadness added well-polished cold clearness to his cheerful melody.

However, it was a great irony of history that this first citizen artist and the incarnation of pure music closed short lifetime along with the collapse of the ancient regime, which was unrelated to him, as if sharing same destiny.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)



The artistic idea developed in the European countries primarily in France at the beginning of the 19th century. It penetrated into literature, music and sculpture in addition to picture. In distinction to nous and objectivity on which the classicism is based, emotions and subjectivity are highly esteemed by the romanticist painters. The historical backdrop of the French Revolution and the following Napoleon war is supposedly a great catalyst to this idea. In respect of being opposed to the classicism it resembles the baroque, though the baroque pursues its unique sense of beauty.


However, as the romanticism displays free individuality, it does not adhere to a particular aesthetic style and turns its eyes to the actuality as well; furthermore it takes up "the ugly" that exists there. The romanticist picture was pioneered by Antoine Jean Gros (1771-1835) and Jean Louis Andre Theodore Gericault (1791-1824), and reached a vertex with Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) who was called "the brave fighter".

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)



In the world of fine art, what this word means is summarized as follows.


1  The posture to focus on the aspects opposing to the ideal of human being, i.e. the ugly or the       evil. Being negative to the value.

2  The attitude to try to reproduce an object faithfully as it is. Not being abstractive.

3  The effort to avoid the subjectivity of artist. Being resolute in criticism against the illusion.



As stated above, realism is characterized by the direction led by negative prescriptions and will. The posture which excludes artificial decorativeness is called naturalism, which has an aspect common to above-mentioned 2, but will not require very firm will. Naturalism is based on quiet observant eye and has a latent sense of balance connected with idealism. Also, from the particular technical viewpoint, 2 is common to literalism, but realism accompanies the view of the world. In any case, realism is the thought which tries to promote above-mentioned directions in the attitude that involves the entire personality.



(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


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