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| Thesis|Thinking on Space Art|Glossary

Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 12


Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis




Doric order
Doric order of Parthenon

The bulge which is seen on the column of Greek architecture. This devise is employed in all kinds of orders, most conspicuously in Doric order that has thick trunk of column. When piling up sliced round stone bases of trunks, the entasis is made by placing bigger ones in the lower part, shortening radius as they rise. It is not clear whether or not such technique increases stability specifically from a structural dynamical viewpoint or it can endure heavier load. It may have been contrived mainly for aesthetic purpose not for a technical reason.



(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)



The picture technique used for the expression of a dramatic character of whole screen by emphasizing lights and darks to stress the mass of object or strengthening a contrast in highlight part and background.


(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

   The integrated painting    The separate painting


 The integrated painting is the painting in which a figure and scenery, both are its theme, coexist. The separate painting is the painting which depicts only figures or scenery. It includes the one that has supplementary scenery in the setting of a figure, or a landscape with a figure added as staffage.


(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

   Raffaello Sanzio


(1483-1520)  Italian painter


Raffaello accomplished the most highly finished aesthetic expression of Italian Renaissance in the field of painting. He was, at the same time, a favorite of the Roman Curia. This patronage relation brought substantive benefits to both sides. The Roman Curia was provided with decorations which are to make history at its palaces, and Raffaello was given great honor and economical stability as a painter.

He is often regarded as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791 Austrian composer) in painting but their course of actual life is, except for premature death, contrastive in the patronage relation with men of power. However, it will be appropriate to say that they are similar in the brightness and the elegance of their works.

Pietro Perugino
da Vinci
Leonardo da

He was a genius of imitation, of course, not in the sense of plagiarizing; the techniques developed by others were absorbed in his peculiar brush and were assimilated to make his style stands out. Many of his early-period works were difficult to be distinguished from those of his teacher Pietro Perugino (1445/50-1523 Italian painter). After moved to Florence, he cleverly absorbed Chiaroscuro from Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519 Italian artist, scientist), and at Rome, rhythmic expression from Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564 Italian space artist). It seems unlikely that these facts had no relation with his feminine temperament; it will be a representation of his adaptability. His distinctive characteristics of painting are found in the calm look of a figure, graceful movements of the figure, and pureness of whole screen; it is no wonder if viewed from the point of his temperament.

Pope Leo X
Portrait of Pope Leo X

Generally, the artistfs winning worldly renown causes corruption of his artistry. This crisis crept in his late years as well. However, as seen in " Portrait of Pope Leo X with Cardinals Giulio de' Medici and Luigi de' Rossi " and unfinished work " The Transfiguration " and other works, he never forgot training and devotion as an artist till the last.

The moderate painting themes which he adopted such as historical paintings, portraits of the prelate and the noble, numerous images of the Virgin and Child were very expedient to draw out stability of the power and obedience from public. Coupled with the high degree of completion in painting technique, his works became one of the models of academy. Therefore, it is excusable that he was placed as the symbol of old regime which should be overcome to innovate art style like " Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood " of the 19th centuryfs United Kingdom.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

   Ludwig van Beethoven


(1770-1827)  German composer


The history of the 19th centuryfs Europe started with the French Revolution and developed with diffusion of its ideal. Beethoven was a person who appeared on the earliest stage of those times, and his works can be paraphrased as the French Revolution in music. He who began his career as an excellent pianist had dreamed of being praised as a player in the court and among the noble, which were the stronghold of old regime, but his wish was broken off by ear illness. However, since he, a prominent improvisator, had another natural gift to invent rich melodies, he urged himself to be destined for a composer by utilizing this talent.

Since this introspective self-conversion coincided with the French Revolution's progress, inside his mind, he might naturally have felt an urge for iconoclastic music composition to abolish old musical style. His inherent persistent temper being added to this, the terribly constructive music emerged. The fusion of improvisationality and constructiveness, mixture of cheerfulness and abstruseness later gave him a title, " a consummator of classicism and a herald of romanticism ".

Evolution and leap of his music were intensively achieved in orchestral music centered on symphonies, piano sonatas, and string quartets. Among these, piano sonatas were used as a form of personal monologues, symphonies for social self-assertions, string quartets for both of them. Their functional distinction gradually disappeared toward the end of his life, so these were integrated in intricate and polyphonic sound universe. At this point, he was essentially a person of instrumental music and had thin relation with dramatic music. His actual life was too much dramatic, but it was never musical-ized by him; the reason of which is that his life might have caused self-contradiction in self-righteous state without permitting a participation of another person. Also, he was not a thoroughly literary man.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


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