

 ThesisThinking on Space ArtGlossary  
Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 11 Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis
The
building which is used as the seat of the town authorities of Florence. It is
called Palazzo
Vecchio, too. It was built under
the design of Arnolfo di Cambio from 1299 to 1304, facing the " Piazza della Signoria " in the
heart of Florence. Cosimo I def Medici (15191574) used this building
as his residence in the 16th century. Later when the Medici family moved
to Palazzo Pitti, it came to be called " Palazzo
Vecchio (means old) ", but it was in continual use as the governmental
office of the Republic of Florence. When Florence became the capital of the unified Italy kingdom in the
19th century, this building was used as the Chamber
of Deputies and the Foreign
Ministry.
This building has two stories, and the clock tower called " the Arnolfo
tower " which reaches 94 meters in height. The outward appearance
of the building is in the Gothic style, but the interiors are made in the
pure Renaissance style. On the second floor, there is " Salone dei
Cinquecento ", well known as the cite of mural painting competition
between Leonardo da Vinci (14521519 Italian artist, scientist) and Michelangelo Buonarroti (14751564 Italian space artist).
(Written
and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by
Michiko Takahashi Christofis)
In
the 18th century, the Lorraine Grand
Dukes Pietro Leopoldo established the academy integrating every field of art in Florence, after
the model of " Accademia del Disegno " which Giorgio Vasari (15111574
Italian painter, architect, biographer) made in the 16th century. During
the 19th century, in this academy, a scheme was laid to gather works of
old masters and make a museum to serve as teaching materials for students.
Then, to mark the fourth centenary of Michelangelo Buonarrotifs (14751564 Italian space artist) birth, there was a plan to bring together
his works in a hall, but it was not realized for lack of budget. "
David ", in front of the Palazzo della Signoria, was transferred with some of his unfinished
sculptures such as " Captives
" and " Saint Matthew " housed here, in addition to the works of
other painters of the Renaissance, at the presentday Accademia Gallery.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)
Quadric surface@ Quadratic curve
Let's formulate an equation adding up the terms composed of three variables
(x, y, z), squares of each variable, the products of every two sets of
the variables, each of those being multiplied by an arbitrary coefficient,
and a constant to give a sum of zero. A set of points which meet this equation
in the threedimensional coordinates where (x, y, z) are perpendicular
to each other form a curved surface called quadric. In
an equation with two variables (x, y,) formulated in the same manner, a
quadratic curve appears in the plane represented by the coordinates of x and y.
The quadratic curve includes circle, ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola; in the quadric
surface, these curves appear in an arbitrary section. When cutting off a cone
in some plane, a quadratic curve appears on its section, so this is called
conic section as well.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is
rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)
A function expressed by an equation where the sum of the term, composed of an independent variable and its square and cube, each being multiplied by an arbitrary coefficient, added by a constant gives a dependent variable. Generally, this function shows a curve. There are one maximal point and one minimal point where differential calculus coefficient becomes 0, and between them, there is an inflection point at which differential calculus coefficient turns from increase to decrease ( the second derivative becomes 0 ). Also, this function is an odd function and the formed curve is symmetrical to the coordinate origin; the more ( the less ) independent variable, the more ( the less) dependent variable.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is
rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis) A
mathematical expression of the ratio in length between sides of a rightangled
triangle in the form of a function of an angle formed between the hypotenuse
and the base. In all, there are six kinds in ratio of the length of sides of a
rightangled triangle. Among these ratios generally used are: sine, height
divided by hypotenuse; cosine, base divided by hypotenuse; tangent, height
divided by base. Three kinds of the rest ratios can be expressed by the
reciprocals of these. Since tangent is equal to the value of sine divided by
cosine, trigonometrical function is eventually represented by sine and cosine. The horizontal coordinate of a certain point on circumference with radius
1, a center of which is on the coordinate origin, is cosine of an angle
formed between the horizontal line and the straight line linking the center
and that point, and the perpendicular coordinate is the value of sine of
the angle. When moving this point at equal angular velocity on the circumference
with radius 1, the change of the value on the horizontal coordinates represents
that of cosine; the change of the value on the perpendicular coordinates
represents that of sine. Now let the change of the angle be an independent
variable, and the value of the change of sine or cosine a dependent variable
here, this function shows a simple wave motion curve, repeating with the
amplitude of vibration of 1 and the period of 360 degrees. The wave motion
of sine and wave motion of cosine are same in shape, but they differ in
phase by 90 degrees. The complicated wave motion can be shown as the synthesis
of this simple wave motion. (Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis) Exponential function Logarithm function Exponential
function is a function, in raising a given number to the nth power, having the
number of power as an independent variable and the calculated result as a
dependent variable. Logarithm function is the inverse function of exponential
function in which an independent variable and a dependent variable are replaced.
The number which is powered in exponential function is called a base in
logarithm function. Since these two are inverse function to each other,
geometrically they form the same curve in shape. Curves of exponential function
and logarithm function are symmetrical with a 45degree straight line as an
axis.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is
rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)
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