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| Thesis|Thinking on Space Art|Glossary

Glossary for Thinking on Space Art 1


Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis


Immanuel Kant


(1724-1804)  German philosopher

Kant deepened the elucidation of human reason discovered by Rene Descartes (1596-1650 French

Rene Descartes
Isaac Newton
David Hume

philosopher), being committed to the dynamics of Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727 English physicist) and the empiricism of David Hume (1711-1776 English philosopher). He began thinking by determining the possibility and the limit of human reason. He subsequently urged that God and material as substance are unknowable, and hereby declared the invalidity of metaphysics, dating back to the West European Middle Ages, through the denial of


realism. Having eliminated even traditional rigid distinction between reason and belief since Augustine (354-430 Latin Church father) and converting it into belief by reason, he opened the way to the deism, and then to the atheism. However, he did not go that far to abolish Christianity in whole, instead he attempted to reorganize the humanistic religion on the sill of autonomous morality which can be accepted by the human reason. Such a point of view led to earn praise for integrity of law and morality, and thus laid the foundations of justifying rigorism and authoritarian state.

  Kantfs philosophy ended up the integration of theory and practice. Naming it "judgment" and

Jean Jacques Rousseau

confining a problem of beauty in it, he completed his life as a petty bourgeois cultured man. In this way, his philosophy is positioned in the development process of European modernism, assuming a bilateral character, that is, brightness of the Enlightenment and darkness leading to totalitarianism

based on the belief in almighty-science as well as Jean Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778 French thinker) by whom he was greatly influenced.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)




(B.C. 384 - B.C. 322)  Greek philosopher


Aristotle completed the intellectual activities of ancient Greek philosophers trying to gain deep understanding of the ultimate existence of things along with the expanded overall knowledge. While acceding preternatural existence which transcends a sense under the great influence of his mentor Plato (B.C. 427- B.C. 347 Greek philosopher), he arranged the way of dealing with natural phenomenon appeared in a sense, which is antithetical to the preternatural existence, and aimed at the logic lying across the two as a fundamental rule of intellect. Besides theoretical contemplation of these, he set out his original views on individual ethics regulating practice, and politics realizing it in a community.

Being different from his mentor Plato, he attached greater importance to the mean, that is, not being partial to one side of anything. Therefore, in contrast to the extreme idealism of Plato inspired later monocrats, despotism power and fascists, his thought was coordinated with separate, constitutional and balanced political system. Platofs opinions spread westward from Greece, laid foundation of the theology of early Christianity and contributed to build an intolerant system. Aristotlefs opinions, on the contrary, going eastward from Greece, contributed to flourish practical empirical science centered on medicine, chemistry and so on in Islamic world with a momentum given by the east conquest of Alexander the Great (B.C. 356- B.C. 323 Macedonian king) who was his student.

Through Thomas Aquinas (1225/6-1274 Italian philosopher, theologian), in Western Europe, since

Thomas Aquinas
Thomas Aquinas

the Middle Ages, Aristotlefs philosophy has made contribution to the development of the Christian theology in which his knowledge of metaphysics, common to his mentor Plato, was utilized. Also, the introduction of accompanying logic and ethics seems to have helped producing worldly free persons in Western Europe. Aristotlefs substantial contributions as such allowed Western Europe to hold predominant position to the rest of cultural areas in respect of secular wisdom as well.

Although he showed keen insights in observation of natural phenomena, being limited to the scientific knowledge of those days, unfortunately, today, their originalities are subject to negative perception in many ways; but this fact does not detract the greatness of his philosophy.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)



A special term used only in this paper. The learning system trying to explain all the phenomena which human beings create and concern, with human existence as an axiomatic presupposition, in other words, without supposition of creative and rational existence except human beings. This is a total contrary concept to the theology, building whose system is the goal for all the modern philosophy. There is a similar word, anthropology, meaning gbiologicalh or ganatomicalh. Homology, however, is different from the foregoing.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

Existence    existence (the real)


It is assumed that both of these terms confront with the idea of human being, and independently exist. Both are thought to dictate recognition, instead of being dictated by recognition. In relation to the idea, when viewed from the side of the idea, it becomes Existence, whereas it becomes existence (the real) when viewed apart from the idea. To put it in comparison with the idea, it is possible to say that Existence is subjective being and existence (the real) is objective being.

In order to be aware of the Existence and existence (the real), we should be clearly conscious of being as what is different from the idea. Existence, particularly, is realized through onefs own experience different from others. Also, the existence (the real) has attribute, either mental or material. In the Middle Ages in Western Europe, it was mainly said about the mental being, i.e. God. In the recent times, however, the idea's gaining dominance created the tendency to identify God with the idea that attempts to recognize Him, strengthening the view of the existence (the real) as limited to the material being.

In natural scientific knowledge until the 19th century, the material being was thought to be none other than the existence (the real). Then the appearance of the quantum theory proved that an observerfs attitude is the element that affects the existence of quantum. In the extreme microscopic world, smaller than atom, the material substantiality is therefore no longer self-evident.

Incidentally, in the realm of philosophy, the existence is generally expressed as "the real" or "the reality", but we will use another word in this paper because this word is often used in technical meaning to discuss about fine art. We will use the same English word for these two similar conceptions, distinguishing them by capital or small letter; and the material existence starting with small letter will be put in parenthesis, such as gexistence (the real)h.

(cf. Glossary of "The World of Teruo Sato")


(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

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