|| Thesis |The World of Teruo Sato |Glossary|
Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama
Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis
@The act of communicating meanings or matters through an object.
Its meaning is not contained in the object (the means of communication)
itself, but is given by the habitual practices of some culture or the inference
of the concept knowledgeable about the culture. In this site, the term is
used to make contrast with "the word" which has the same function.
"The word" links the sign with the meaning, and "the
symbol" joins the object to the meaning. The picture is the art which
uses the power of the symbol most effectively.
Generally in the art including the picture, this term indicates
the posture to place a symbol in the center of expression and to utilize its power to the maximum.
It emerged in the poems of Stephane Mallarme (1842-1898), Jean Nicolas Arthur
Rimbaud (1854-1891), and Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) as the reaction to the
naturalism and the modern science in France in the 1880s; then spread to the
pictorial domain as well denying description of the appearance but forming
tendency to depict the inner world. Gustave Moreau (1826-1898) who was the
mentor of Henri Matisse and Georges Rouault, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes
(1824-1898), Odilon Redon (1840-1916), etc. are reckoned as representative
The methodology to study the meaning of the subject-matter of a
picture. It ignores the formal elements such as color or line. The meaning of
the subject-matter is searched from the viewpoint of a specific traditional
culture, and personal reflections are rejected. This discipline was proposed
by German art historian Ervin Panofsky (1892-1968) in 1939. For example, when
a man who courteously removes his hat is drawn in a picture, it's associated
with the protocol that the knight in the Middle Ages took off his helmet to
call for peace. The "peace" is what the picture connotes, however, it's
not understandable without the knowledge on the traditional European culture.
It's the iconology to be a guide leading to the understanding.
Roland Barthes (1915-1980)
The French critic. He pursued the critical research on the whole
field of art mainly in the literature based on Marxism and Ferdinand de
Saussure's (1857-1913 Born in Switzerland) linguistics. He threw doubt on
creators of the art and the significance of their genius; on the other hand
he turned his attention to the creative role of the appreciators.
This term is the word made for this site, which refers to the
wrong impression that the creation of art can be accomplished only by the
technique. The technique is essentially used in accordance with the clear
purpose; the purpose is monopolized by a person who has it, whereas the
technique is universally popularized. Therefore the technique is whatfs
firstly acquired by the beginners, on the other hand it gets confused with
the purpose. The posture to be satisfied only with the accumulated technique
as the means, failing to distinguish the means from the purpose, is formed in
this process. This is no other than Technicism.
Generally defined as the solvent to dissolve pigments when making
paints. In this site, in a little broader sense, it indicates the whole
material used to produce the color of the picture.
The painter has the technical ability to build a world using
color and form; they are endowed with outstanding senses for color and
formation. The formative sense means capability of accurately memorizing the
shape of the space occupied by an object. Therefore, the painter has greater
sensibility for the space more than ordinary people. Since all the space on a
plane is expressed by diagrams, the painter, who draws a picture on it, is
supposed to have a very perceptive mind to the diagram. It is no other than
the schematic ability of recognition.
The plan on which the three-dimensional space is convincingly
presented on the two- dimensional plane. It creates illusion as if there's a
space in the plain by picturing things nearby big and the others in the distance
The plan on which each point that composes the outline of an
object is reproduced by moving it parallel to another plane. The difference
of distance from the plane to each point on the outline is not represented.
For example, when the two objects-- one is one meter away and the other is
three meters away-- are arranged at the same height, they are drawn as if to
be neighboring each other on the projection plan; hence their positional
relation against the screen is indiscernible on the plan.
The left picture is typical projection plan.
Matsumoto Koshiro W (1794 woodprint)
perspective plan, when
drawing a big near object and a small distant one, they are arranged in the
analogous diagram with the distance between them proportioned to the size of
each object. In this case, the size of an object which is placed infinitely
far comes to zero. Not having a size, it becomes a point (the
vanishing point) on the
plan. All the objects in the perspective plan are depicted to converge on this
point. Seen from the side of the vanishing point, everything is pictured to
be diverted around from there. The straight line which shows the diversion
from the vanishing point is ray.
The technique used in the
perspective plan; when a big
near object and a small distant one are drawn, they are arranged in the
analogous diagram with the distance between them proportioned to the size of
each object. To express a part of the analogous diagram clearly by a straight
line makes the appreciators strongly conscious of the sham space created by
the perspective plan.
The technique used in the
perspective plan; when a
big near object and a small distant one are drawn, the difference of distance
to each object is represented by the difference of the clarity of the outline
or the whole chroma. The distant object appears necessarily blurred or dark
and dull, as the reflected light coming from there becomes weak. Expression
of the above-mentioned law by the adjustment of paints and the processing of
outline helps the appreciators perceive the distance to the object.
The conceptual point which is set to give depth to the picture.
The painter can freely establish it at any optional place on or outside the
canvas, but actually it's often positioned near the center of the picture. To
give the depth, more than one receding parallel lines are drawn to converge
on a point on the horizontal line. This point becomes the vanishing point.
The vanishing point is positioned in a part of the brow of Jesus Christ who
is at the center in the famous "The Last Supper" of Leonardo da
The partition which is placed near the middleground of the Sato's
picture; a distinctive feature of his work. It's in many cases a physical wall,
but not necessarily. Emphasis on the sense of distance to the partition and
elimination of the depth by making the wall will give the picture both
plastic and plane impressions.
Sato's picture composition technique in the middleground. By
placing a huge plane near middleground of the picture as if there's a wall,
it gives the whole picture a characteristic of rising to the surface. The
Wall of Pamirs is a typical of those
planes. Combined with plasticity of an object and the sense of distance to
it, it gives the picture two kinds of nature, accurate description of the
depth of the picture (the
perspective plan) and emphasis on the plane (the
Sato's picture composition technique in the background. In Sato's
composition, depth to the background is often erased. However, he doesn't
ignore its existence. Consequently he expresses his consciousness of the
background by adding what are associated with its existence such as shadows
or clouds in a picture.
Sato's picture composition technique in the foreground. Placing a
lot of objects in the foreground increases the senses of plasticity and
massiveness of the picture. Although this technique seems desirable for Sato,
he cannot use it, as it brings about the split of the world. As a substitute
method, Sato sets what has two natures both as the object and *the setting in
the foreground. It can be said to be a solid body and at the same time a part
of plane; e.g. the crest of a breaking wave, the snow-covered earth,
flooring, a carpet, etc.
The characteristic of the
linear perspective used by
Sato. The straight lines receding towards the
vanishing point are
reduced on the screen as much as possible, to avoid plain display of the
depth of the picture.
The wall for the mural painting, the canvas for the tableau, the paper for the pastel, for instance.
of daubing paints directly on a screen without priming.
In the art history, this concept is considered to be synonymous
with the realism. However, in a little narrower sense in this site, this term
indicates the posture or the way to try to exclude his own subjectivity as
much as possible when a painter draws a picture. Sato's own interpretation of
realism, which includes representation of the scenery produced by his
rational imagination, doesn't fit to this concept.
In the art history, this term refers to the style of emotional
expression which attaches importance to the color; it appeared in the
beginning of the 20th century in Germany, Austria and so on. However in this
site, in a little broader sense, this term is used to refer to the posture or
the way to try to instill his own subjectivity as much as possible, by using
all the drawing techniques including the composition and the lines without
being bound only by colors when the painter draws a picture.
The technique of drawing a picture by allowing outlines to be
indistinct and colors to shade off gradually.
The technique of rubbing paints into the canvas with a brush to make a fine adjustment of the color tone.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)
The touch of a paintbrush and the way of applying paints which
appeared on the picture screen. Each painter and each work takes an original
The part which identical mediums were put on a drawing surface. Identical mediums mean that the
quality and the thickness of the material to draw a picture are equal. It's
not used as the general artistic term, but in this site, it has an important
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