Cyber Museum Mouseion Thank you for your access !
| Thesis |The World of Teruo Sato |Glossary

Glossary 3

 

Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis

 


Symbol

 

   @The act of communicating meanings or matters through an object. Its meaning is not contained in the object (the means of communication) itself, but is given by the habitual practices of some culture or the inference of the concept knowledgeable about the culture. In this site, the term is used to make contrast with "the word" which has the same function. "The word" links the sign with the meaning, and "the symbol" joins the object to the meaning. The picture is the art which uses the power of the symbol most effectively.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Symbolism

 

     Generally in the art including the picture, this term indicates the posture to place a symbol in the center of expression and to utilize its power to the maximum. It emerged in the poems of Stephane Mallarme (1842-1898), Jean Nicolas Arthur Rimbaud (1854-1891), and Paul Verlaine (1844-1896) as the reaction to the naturalism and the modern science in France in the 1880s; then spread to the pictorial domain as well denying description of the appearance but forming tendency to depict the inner world. Gustave Moreau (1826-1898) who was the mentor of Henri Matisse and Georges Rouault, Pierre Puvis de Chavannes (1824-1898), Odilon Redon (1840-1916), etc. are reckoned as representative painters.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Iconology

 

     The methodology to study the meaning of the subject-matter of a picture. It ignores the formal elements such as color or line. The meaning of the subject-matter is searched from the viewpoint of a specific traditional culture, and personal reflections are rejected. This discipline was proposed by German art historian Ervin Panofsky (1892-1968) in 1939. For example, when a man who courteously removes his hat is drawn in a picture, it's associated with the protocol that the knight in the Middle Ages took off his helmet to call for peace. The "peace" is what the picture connotes, however, it's not understandable without the knowledge on the traditional European culture. It's the iconology to be a guide leading to the understanding.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Roland Barthes (1915-1980)

 

      The French critic. He pursued the critical research on the whole field of art mainly in the literature based on Marxism and Ferdinand de Saussure's (1857-1913 Born in Switzerland) linguistics. He threw doubt on creators of the art and the significance of their genius; on the other hand he turned his attention to the creative role of the appreciators.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Technicism

 

     This term is the word made for this site, which refers to the wrong impression that the creation of art can be accomplished only by the technique. The technique is essentially used in accordance with the clear purpose; the purpose is monopolized by a person who has it, whereas the technique is universally popularized. Therefore the technique is whatfs firstly acquired by the beginners, on the other hand it gets confused with the purpose. The posture to be satisfied only with the accumulated technique as the means, failing to distinguish the means from the purpose, is formed in this process. This is no other than Technicism.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Medium

 

      Generally defined as the solvent to dissolve pigments when making paints. In this site, in a little broader sense, it indicates the whole material used to produce the color of the picture.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The schematic ability of recognition

 

 The painter has the technical ability to build a world using color and form; they are endowed with outstanding senses for color and formation. The formative sense means capability of accurately memorizing the shape of the space occupied by an object. Therefore, the painter has greater sensibility for the space more than ordinary people. Since all the space on a plane is expressed by diagrams, the painter, who draws a picture on it, is supposed to have a very perceptive mind to the diagram. It is no other than the schematic ability of recognition.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The perspective plan

 

     The plan on which the three-dimensional space is convincingly presented on the two- dimensional plane. It creates illusion as if there's a space in the plain by picturing things nearby big and the others in the distance small.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The projection plan

 

     The plan on which each point that composes the outline of an object is reproduced by moving it parallel to another plane. The difference of distance from the plane to each point on the outline is not represented. For example, when the two objects-- one is one meter away and the other is three meters away-- are arranged at the same height, they are drawn as if to be neighboring each other on the projection plan; hence their positional relation against the screen is indiscernible on the plan.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 

 

The left picture is typical projection plan.

 

Toshusai-Sharaku

Matsumoto Koshiro ‡W (1794 woodprint)

 

 

 

 

 

 


Ray

 

     In the perspective plan, when drawing a big near object and a small distant one, they are arranged in the analogous diagram with the distance between them proportioned to the size of each object. In this case, the size of an object which is placed infinitely far comes to zero. Not having a size, it becomes a point (the vanishing point) on the plan. All the objects in the perspective plan are depicted to converge on this point. Seen from the side of the vanishing point, everything is pictured to be diverted around from there. The straight line which shows the diversion from the vanishing point is ray.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The linear perspective

 

     The technique used in the perspective plan; when a big near object and a small distant one are drawn, they are arranged in the analogous diagram with the distance between them proportioned to the size of each object. To express a part of the analogous diagram clearly by a straight line makes the appreciators strongly conscious of the sham space created by the perspective plan.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The aerial perspective

 

     The technique used in the perspective plan; when a big near object and a small distant one are drawn, the difference of distance to each object is represented by the difference of the clarity of the outline or the whole chroma. The distant object appears necessarily blurred or dark and dull, as the reflected light coming from there becomes weak. Expression of the above-mentioned law by the adjustment of paints and the processing of outline helps the appreciators perceive the distance to the object.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Vanishing point

 

     The conceptual point which is set to give depth to the picture. The painter can freely establish it at any optional place on or outside the canvas, but actually it's often positioned near the center of the picture. To give the depth, more than one receding parallel lines are drawn to converge on a point on the horizontal line. This point becomes the vanishing point. The vanishing point is positioned in a part of the brow of Jesus Christ who is at the center in the famous "The Last Supper" of Leonardo da Vinci.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)



The Wall of Pamirs

 

     The partition which is placed near the middleground of the Sato's picture; a distinctive feature of his work. It's in many cases a physical wall, but not necessarily. Emphasis on the sense of distance to the partition and elimination of the depth by making the wall will give the picture both plastic and plane impressions.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The Method of Walled Middleground

 

     Sato's picture composition technique in the middleground. By placing a huge plane near middleground of the picture as if there's a wall, it gives the whole picture a characteristic of rising to the surface. The Wall of Pamirs is a typical of those planes. Combined with plasticity of an object and the sense of distance to it, it gives the picture two kinds of nature, accurate description of the depth of the picture (the perspective plan) and emphasis on the plane (the projection plan).
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The Method of Suggestive Background

 

     Sato's picture composition technique in the background. In Sato's composition, depth to the background is often erased. However, he doesn't ignore its existence. Consequently he expresses his consciousness of the background by adding what are associated with its existence such as shadows or clouds in a picture.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The Method of Dual-natured Foreground

 

     Sato's picture composition technique in the foreground. Placing a lot of objects in the foreground increases the senses of plasticity and massiveness of the picture. Although this technique seems desirable for Sato, he cannot use it, as it brings about the split of the world. As a substitute method, Sato sets what has two natures both as the object and *the setting in the foreground. It can be said to be a solid body and at the same time a part of plane; e.g. the crest of a breaking wave, the snow-covered earth, flooring, a carpet, etc.

   
* In this case the setting does not indicate the background of the whole picture, but the one that shows the surroundings of the object depicted in the foreground.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The Method of Restrictive Ray

 

     The characteristic of the linear perspective used by Sato. The straight lines receding towards the vanishing point are reduced on the screen as much as possible, to avoid plain display of the depth of the picture.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Support

 

     The wall for the mural painting, the canvas for the tableau, the paper for the pastel, for instance.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Alla Prima

 

     Technique of daubing paints directly on a screen without priming.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Literalism or literal

 

     In the art history, this concept is considered to be synonymous with the realism. However, in a little narrower sense in this site, this term indicates the posture or the way to try to exclude his own subjectivity as much as possible when a painter draws a picture. Sato's own interpretation of realism, which includes representation of the scenery produced by his rational imagination, doesn't fit to this concept.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Expressionism

 

    In the art history, this term refers to the style of emotional expression which attaches importance to the color; it appeared in the beginning of the 20th century in Germany, Austria and so on. However in this site, in a little broader sense, this term is used to refer to the posture or the way to try to instill his own subjectivity as much as possible, by using all the drawing techniques including the composition and the lines without being bound only by colors when the painter draws a picture.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Sfumato

 

     The technique of drawing a picture by allowing outlines to be indistinct and colors to shade off gradually.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Frottie

 

      The technique of rubbing paints into the canvas with a brush to make a fine adjustment of the color tone.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Matière

 

     The touch of a paintbrush and the way of applying paints which appeared on the picture screen. Each painter and each work takes an original form.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Color Surface

 

     The part which identical mediums were put on a drawing surface. Identical mediums mean that the quality and the thickness of the material to draw a picture are equal. It's not used as the general artistic term, but in this site, it has an important meaning.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 

           Home Home for narrow band    To Glossary 1     To Glossary 2      To Glossary 4

 

Copyright (C) 2007 Mouseion. All Rights Reserved.