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| Thesis |The World of Teruo Sato |Glossary

Glossary 2

 

Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis

 


The representational painter

 

    The painter who reproduces figures and things in his picture exactly as they are in life. A painter who has intense curiosity in the portrait is said to show a tendency to become a representational artist. The representational painting is often compared with the one inspired by the painter's illusion like the surrealism. In this site, this term is used in comparison with the abstract paintings focusing on the dismemberment of the form of object. The abstract painting executes dismemberment thoroughly, while the representational painting refuses it. The art history holds that the representational painting passed through the age of prosperity in the first half of the 19th century and does not confront directly with the abstract painting which flowered in the 20th century.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The idea

 

     The contents of recognition of the world which is formed in the heart of human being through the sense. Philosophically, this term implies rejection of the existence of whatever independent from human's recognition. The exponents of such an independent existence are God or substance. Standing on the position to emphasize the idea, God is supposed to exist because human beings can perceive him. Meanwhile, substance is considered as the mere sensory reflection or what is unperceivable; therefore its existence is totally ignored. For instance, one sees that a glass which was under his nose until a moment ago has been broken and gone at the next moment, or when he's busy he feels that time passes faster than usual though it must be keeping the same pace. At these moments he feels that the outside world which he has believed to be certain is actually precarious, and may think that only a sense of himself exists. Thus he reviews himself as the theater to look at the world. When he feels that the world will become extinct after he died, he's presumed to see the world from the side of the idea. He, who is the master of the theater, can change diversely the world perspective when he sees it from the side of the idea. Since the human being can remodel the contents of the idea at his will, this term could prove originality of the human being to God.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The external universe and the internal idea

 

  The word which summarizes Sato's own philosophy of picture. Sato distinguishes clearly the memory lying in his consciousness from the unchangeable actuality of the outside world when he draws a picture. As he knew that it's difficult to change the outside actuality, he became the representational painter who faithfully reproduces it. The immanent memory is sometimes converted to "the imagination" by his will, which gives independence to his picture. The fact that memory can be remodeled overlaps with the philosophical meaning of the word, the idea. Therefore "the internal idea" is the most suitable word to prescribe Sato's inner world. "The universe" is the word with strong image of being too huge for humans to control. Moreover, in the same manner it appropriately describes Sato's consciousness towards outside. Incidentally, Sato himself never used this word.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The fantasticism

 

    The posture executing the artistic creation with a view of nature which is distinct from the world observable with the rational law or experience. In the pictorial domain, the fantasticism is marked by its subject-matter involving the monster which appears in the myth, the religious illusion and the world of incubus, non-literal form, and the use of plentiful color and light. It's opposed to the realism as well as the abstract painting. However, the abstract painting differs from the fantastic picture in respect of breaking the natural law in dismemberment of the object, while the latter does it in the relation between the object and the setting. For concrete example, one can find a circular face in the abstract painting, while stars visible in the daytime in the fantastic picture. The works of Hieronymus Bosch (1450-1516), William Blake (1757-1827), Odilon Redon (1840-1916), etc. come under this genre.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The modernism

 

    The trend of thought to place the human being as its central value, which has been conspicuous since the 19th century in the western Europe. In the Middle Ages Europe, everything was put in order with God as its central core by the overwhelming influence of the Christian Church. In those days, the position of human beings was supposedly just a creation, resemblance figure of God, and a mere passive existence which receives the God's intention. On the other hand, the view that the human being can independently and actively behave was gradually molded among some philosophers and intellectuals after the 17th century. Remodeling nature, by the recognition and control of the natural law through the reason endowed with human beings, has been repeatedly experienced in the Europe after the industrial revolution, and the thought gradually solidified into conviction. Eventually, it has been put on a firm footing as the persuasive view of the world.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The baroque

 

     As the pictorial term it refers to the style which sprang after the classicism of Renaissance in the Catholic countries mainly Italy from the 16th to the 18th century. The beauty of the Renaissance style lies in the harmony, the balance and the completion, whereas that of baroque, in the marveling, the dynamic movement and the fascination. The etymology is "barroco" of Portuguese indicating "a deformed pearl". Religiously, the revolt against the Reformation motivated this movement, and it was the royalty and the nobility who gave it propulsive force. The later year's works of Michelangelo Buonarroti (1475-1564) and Tintoretto (1518-1594) are the precursors, and the leading painter of this genre is Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640) of Belgium. The influence of baroque is also found in the works of Simon Vouet (1590-1649), Philippe Champaigne (1602-1674), Francois Boucher (1703-1770), Georges de la Tour (1593-1652) of France.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The classicism

 

     One of the European art styles which respects the formal beauty seeking the harmony, the balance and the clarity. Retrospective admiration to Greek and Roman style underlies it. In the domain of picture and sculpture, it arose as early as in the Renaissance at the end of the 15th century. It had been transplanted to France of the absolute monarchy times and became the model of beauty, then spread to the west European countries from the 17th to the 18th century and influenced on the fields involving literature, music, and architecture. Jaques Louis David (1748-1825) and Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres (1780-1867) are the representative painters of this style.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The impressionism

 

     The pictorial style that the painter's sensuous impression received from the things is described just as it is. It originated in French picture in the second half of the 19th century and permeated through the other fields. In terms of pictorial technique, it held that the nature is the phenomenon of the changes of color which fades away with the sun light and impressionists tried to express it in their works; it was quite opposite to the positivism and the literalism which were the dominant styles of the time. The young painters who were in revolt against academic pictures in the 1860s continued a small group activity in various places. Among those the two groups, "Acadèmie Suisse" whose active member includes Camille Pissarro (1830-1903) and Paul Cezanne (1839-1906) and "Atelier Gleyre" to which Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) and Alfred Sisley (1839-1899) belonged, were united into one group by Claude Monet (1840-1926) who had participated in both. The group members gathered to "Cafè Guerbois" to exchange opinions on the new picture. When the Franco-Prussian War broke out Monet, Sisley and Pissarro of the group migrated to London avoiding the war. There they encountered the works of Joseph Mallord William Turner (1775-1851) and John Constable (1776-1837), creators of the landscapes with the daring use of outdoor sunlight, and were much influenced by those works. They returned to Paris after the war and held a group exhibition in 1874. The title of Monet's "Impression: Sunrise" which was exhibited at that time was the origin of the group name. Among others above-mentioned three (Monet, Sisley and Pissarro) influenced by the outdoor landscape are the most notable impressionist painters. The impressionists held their exhibitions eight times until 1886; in the mean time they joined the mainstream of the painting circles.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The romanticism

 

     The artistic idea developed in the European countries primarily in France at the beginning of the 19th century. It penetrated into literature, music and sculpture in addition to picture. In distinction to nous and objectivity on which the classicism is based, emotions and subjectivity are highly esteemed by the romanticist painters. The historical backdrop of the French Revolution and the following Napoleon war is supposedly a great catalyst to this idea. In respect of being opposed to the classicism it resembles the baroque, though the baroque pursues its unique sense of beauty. However, as the romanticism displays free individuality, it does not adhere to a particular aesthetic style and turns its eyes to the actuality as well; furthermore it takes up "the ugly" that exists there. The romanticist picture was pioneered by Antoine Jean Gros (1771-1835) and Jean Louis Andre Theodore Gericault (1791-1824), and reached a vertex with Ferdinand Victor Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863) who was called "the brave fighter".
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The surrealism

 

     When the European traditional value since the Middle Ages was destroyed actually in a large scale in World War I, diverse values and thoughts which had been suppressed by the tradition came to the surface. Under the influence of Sigmund Freud's (1856-1939) psychoanalysis, the movement, which directs attention to the mystic elements such as fancy, illusion and dream lying in the unconsciousness restrained by the nous, arose in the poetic domain. Andre Breton (1896-1966), the French poet, theorized it and put his thoughts together in "The manifesto of surrealism" in 1924. The theory extended to the fields of picture, photograph and movie as well as poetry thereafter. In the pictorial field, each painter heads for the direction to describe his own world of unconsciousness using a literal manner or an abstract expression. Since the actuality also exists in a distorted form in the world of unconsciousness, the surrealism doesn't necessarily ignore the actuality; it presents unique interpretations on it. The exponent painters are Rene Magritte (1898-1967), Salvador Dali (1904-1989), Paul Delvaux (1897-1994), Joan Miro (1893-1983), Max Ernst (1891-1976) and so on.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Pantheism

 

    The belief that everything, visible and appears as the phenomenon, is identified with the god. It's inconsistent with a view that the god is transcendental, personified or invisible, and has a tendency to regard the whole nature as the god. Taoism of China in the Orient and philosophy of the Stoic school in ancient Greece stand on this point of view. Dutch Philosopher Baruch de Spinoza (1632-1677) theorized it using the mathematical system.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


a Personal God

Observing from a viewpoint of the worldwide scale, the god is often equipped with the personal elements and the natural elements. (For example, in Greek mythology Uranus had a character of the sky, Ra in ancient Egyptian mythology and Amaterasu in Japanese mythology had that of the sun, and Mithra in Persian mythology, had that of the light, etcjPhilosopher Thales (around 624 B.C.- around 546 B.C.) in ancient Greece said that "The god dwells in everything and everywhere around us", and set the basis of the pantheism which regards the god as nature equally.  On the other hand, like God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam who has almighty creativity, he is acknowledged to be the existence that transcends all nature because of his creating them. Therefore, in these religions, there is no concept that God takes on the character of nature or equates God with nature. For a long time, in Europe and the Middle East, such a concept of God was commonly shared with no suspicion.  However, in the 18th century in the Western Europe, "the Enlightenment thought" became popular, and on the assumption that the human reason has supreme function and value, criticism against the traditional concept of God was emerged. In this process the philosophy represented by pantheism had spread, and hence the concept of God was replaced by the natural law which is able to be recognized and analyzed by the human reason. Thomas Hobbes (English philosopher 1588-1679), John Locke (English philosopher 1632-1704), Denis Diderot (French philosopher 1713-1784), Voltaire (French thinker 1694-1778), Jean-Jacques Rousseau (French philosopher 1712-1778) proposed such a thought. Then, it laid the foundation of the materialism and the atheism as well. To cope with this movement, the concept of God was reconsidered in the cause of protecting the traditional Christianity, but only his personal element has come to be emphasized. This is the concept of "a Personal God". Therefore, at present, this word is often used on the occasion of insisting on the revival of the belief in God against the human reason.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The torso-type stiff

 

    The stiff of only trunk without a head or a limb. Torso is an Italian word.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Only the self is most important

 

    The words supposedly advocated by Gautama Buddha (BC563-483), the founder of Buddhism, immediately after he was born and walked by seven steps. Not containing a tenet written in the Buddhist scriptures, the phrase doesn't have a religious meaning. However, it's conceived by the heathens and general public except Buddhist to be the phrase which shows the explicit image of Buddhism. It's considered that the Buddha's will leading to denial of the absolute god, which is the cornerstone of Buddhism, is simply expressed in the phrase, hence it may not be fair to say that it presents a false image.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The primitive Buddhism

 

    The Buddhism had split into the two groups some 200 years after the death of Gautama Buddha (BC563-483); one gives importance only to the spiritual enlightenment of priests and the other relieves the anguish of the general public. The former spread to the Southeast Asia, the latter spread from Tibet to China and its neighboring countries. Each group split further into a number of sects and an enormous amount of scriptures were written then. However, the tenet already established by the religious group before the schism is specifically called "primitive Buddhism", which could be the one that Buddha himself preached directly. It's also said that the scripture, "agama sutra", was compiled in those times and its tenet has been transmitted to this day.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The fakir

 

    In Hinduism and Buddhism, a person who joined a religious group had to collect contributions from the followers in the secular society to earn his bread since he didn't have any fortune or production means. The priest who makes his round in the residence of the followers with a bowl in his hands reciting a sutra to collect the contributions is called "a fakir". In India, this kind of discipline was extensively practiced, while in China eagerly accomplished in Zen Buddhism. In Christianity, it has some similarity with the life of monks in Order of Friars Minor, Carmel and Ordo Eremitarum S. Augustini.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)



Art-for-art principle  (picture-for-picture principle)

 

The artistic theory which the French novelist Theophile Gautier (1811-1872) advocated at the beginning of the 19th century. He sought the goal of the art in art itself and denied entirely its usefulness against other value. The idea is based on the attitude of admiring beauty, in other words, the goal of the art, and is closely related to the formalism and the aestheticism. Limited application of this theory to the picture is picture-for-picture principle. In the art history, although such an idea has never been theorized, it's actually revealed in the practice of a painter who commits himself to the execution of pictures.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Cubism

 

  @ The new picture movement arose in France at the beginning of the 20th century. Dividing a solid body into geometrical scraps and reorganizing it on the screen, it has become the art of drawing which represents an object as it seems from many aspects simultaneously on the screen.(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Metaphor

 

     The concept of the rhetoric. The technique that implies some meaning while outwardly denoting the other with the use of a word which has many applications. A thing is applicable as well. It's also considered as the special symbolic function which uses a thing with various aspects.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Shintoism

 

     The indigenous religion formed as a custom in Japan. At around the 3rd century B.C., the immigrants from the Asian continent had brought rice to the Japanese Archipelago; the rice crop spread to many regions of Japan then resulted in producing a lot of rituals derived from it. The Japanese had consecrated the rice crop on the thought that it's a blessing from the god and the rituals were incorporated into the religion. The immigrants from the Asian continent were finally integrated into the emperor family; the emperor held the concurrent post of the supreme Shinto priest for those rites to intensify his authority over political domination. Also, the rites were merged with the tendency of the polytheism among the Japanese to result in prescribing their natural perspective. In this way, the tenet and the folkways derived from Shitoism have taken the deep root in the daily life of the Japanese.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Buddhism

 

     The religion which Gautama Buddha (BC563-483) proposed in India in the 6-5th century B.C. In those days the firm polytheism dominated India based on the scripture of the Brahmanism. On the other hand, the social disorder and the anguish of the individuals were incessant. Buddha, in face of reality, declaring the emptiness of the ultimate existence and the absoluteness of the true self, sought what causes pain to humans in the way the idea's supposed to be. This turn of the viewpoint gave rise to a mental revolution and invented the new religious structure which superceded the Brahmanism. The new religion didn't prosper in India itself, but has propagated to the Southeast Asia via Ceylon (currently Sri Lanka), to China and its neighboring countries via Tibet, and developed into the universal religion in the east half of the Eurasia continent.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Buddhist image

 

     The desire to have a visible form of the Buddha, as the object of their belief, arose widely in the region where Buddhism as a religion has been preached. The icon in Europe, too, was produced by the same desire. However, because there was not a tenet to prohibit "idolatry" in the Buddhism, a great many sculptures and pictures of Buddha were made to satisfy the desire.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Confucianism

 

     The political thought which Confucius (BC552-479) proposed in China in the 6-5th century B.C. Although power or law can be cited for the means of political domination, Confucius thought that the excellent moral sense of the leader to be an ultimate purpose for it. To this end, he defined that the disposition which an individual should acquire as "the virtue (in Chinese Dé)", and the norm of society as "the courtesy (in Chinese Lî)". At the time of announcement, it was not accepted as being too idealistic. However, his theory was later developed by his successors and maintains strong influence in China, Korea, and Japan to this day.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The Tokugawa era

 

     From the 15th to the 16th century, Japan fell into the disturbance of war on the nationwide scale. It was "Kanpaku"iThe chief advisor to the emperorjHideyoshi Toyotomi (1537-1598) who unified the whole country by force of arms in 1590 which put an end to the war. He had been a mere farmer, but served a genius leader Nobunaga Oda (1534-1582) and contributed to the hegemony establishment in the central region of Japan near Kyoto (the capital of Japan in those times). Having won the inheritor conflict which broke out after assassination of Nobunaga by his vassal, Hideyoshi rose to the status of "Kanpaku". After Hideyoshi's death, the inheritor conflict reoccurred among his vassals, and it was "Shogun" (the general of army) Ieyasu (1542-1616) who had eventually gained a victory in 1600. "Shogun" placed the headquarters in Edo (the present Tokyo) and his surname was Tokugawa. The domination by his blood relatives continued until 1867. In the Japan's history, the period, during which the "Shogun" family was in the control of the nation, is called "the Tokugawa era" or "the Edo times".
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Japanese Empire

 

     Tokugawa shogun family had maintained national isolation policy, but in the last years of its domination, the traditional diplomatic policy was denied by Matthew Calbraith Perry, the admiral of the United States of America. As a result it lost political authority, and in 1868 it was overthrown by the Allied Forces of strong retainers of western Japan. This retainer union plotted to set up Japan as a colonial power modeled on the United Kingdom instead of renouncing the national isolation policy. However, since it was democratic administration and had the custom constitution, in 1889, Japan copied the constitution of Preussen which had a similar despotic monarchism and came to the formal use of the name of the country. The empire had existed until it surrendered to United States of America in World War II in 1945.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 

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