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| Thesis |The World of Teruo Sato |Glossary

Glossary 1

 

Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama

Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis

 


The closed picture

The picture as shown left; a figure is not definable where he/she is. Generally, the picture that represents fictitious world will be included in this category. As for painting, usually the world regarded as subject-matter is described in a piece of work. However, in "the closed picture", the object is drawn as if it exists nowhere except on the canvas. Itfs the form which Sato, whose principal aim is to picture a single world, used most frequently. This concept is incidentally the original term of this site and is different from "the closed form" which Heinrich Wölfflin (1864-1945, the Swiss art historian) proposed. "The closed form" is the type of beauty inspired by the Renaissance.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The opened picture

 

The picture as shown left, in which a place that exists in the actual world has been cut off and put onto the canvas. Because the depicted world is not a creation out of the painterfs idea, itfs always connected with the actual world. There are many pictures of this type in the works of Sato who aims to faithfully reproduce only the things which his eyes can see. This concept is incidentally the original term of this site and is different from "the opened form" which Heinrich Wölfflin (1864-1945, the Swiss art historian) proposed. "The opened form" is the type of beauty inspired by the baroque.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


The complete etude

 

The picture as shown left, which also can be termed as "the colored dessin". For general painters, it's only a sketch. However for Sato, to draw a figure is the ultimate purpose in the etude, hence his work sometimes completes at this stage.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 

 

 



The incomplete etude

 

The picture as shown left. The setting or the appendage part of the picture is left unfinished. As for the incomplete part, in many cases, canvas is left just as it is. This is the peculiar picture style often used by Sato. Because it's the most important theme for him to express the existence of human beings in a picture, the appendage objects and the setting are not of much significance. Therefore, his picture is regarded as a complete work even if all of these elements are not drawn.

 

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


Haiku

 

The world's shortest poetry established in Japan, which is composed of only 17 Japanese syllables. Its origin is traced back to around the 7th century; the versicle of Japanese poetry called "waka" which recites human feelings by 31 Japanese syllables was founded and a large number of people, from the emperor to the anonymous citizens, devoted themselves to create the poem. Gradually the habitual practice of gathering and making the poem each other was formed among them. Since the 14th century, the manner, which one casts a question by 17 syllables of the first half and the other answers by 14 syllables of the second half, was established. The first 17-syllable-part of question developed into an independent versicle in the 17th century; this is haiku. Incidentally, it was at the end of 19th century that such a form of poetry was named haiku, and until then it had been called "haikai".

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Basho Matsuo

 

The Japanese poet in the second half of the 17th century who established the unique form of poetry recognized as haiku for the first time in Japan. He played an active role mainly in Tokyo (called "Edo" in those times) which was already the de facto capital of Japan. Haiku then had not gone any higher level than the word play among the citizens, but Basho injected his own sense of beauty, in effect profoundness of nature and still composure in life, into it. He nurtured a great many pupils and bequeathed the way of making a haiku to the coming generations through his teachings. The poet also made many poem-making trips in his lifetime and his account of the trip was written in excellent prose. He was a great master who excelled not only in poetry but also in prose.


His famous works;

 

In this hush profound / into the very rocks it seeps / The cicada sound.

 

A mound of summer grass: / Are warriors' heroic deeds / Only dreams that pass?

 

(Translated by Dorothy Brittonj

 
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


Polytheism

 

The doctrine that there are plural existences and wills of the god. Most of the religions, more or less, embrace this point of view except for Judaism and the ones derived from it. The thought underlies myths of ancient Greece, Egypt and Germany. Conspicuously seen in the Orient, Hinduism and Taoism are good examples. In Japan, similar thought is found in the concept of Shintoism, according which every mountain, river, sea and anywhere else has its own god.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The absolute picture

 

The picture whose subject-matter is not associated with religion, politics, literature, etc. A number of pictorial exponents are seen in abstract paintings. Though it easily tends to be defined as synonymous with the abstract painting in the general artistic term, in this site it refers to a little broader meaning. Representational paintings just depicting everyday scenery are also included in this term. As the representational painting is the one which draws a meaningful object, it's difficult to be the absolute picture.

 Absolute picture is essentially desirable for Sato who adheres to the picture-for-picture principle. However, its production would be a painful task for him because he's also a representational painter.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


 

The programme picture

 

The picture which is opposite to the absolute picture. This term borrows its concept from the musical domain and is not used as generic artistic term. The subject-matter is practical for advertisement or realization of some idea, thought and system, hence it gives strong meaning to the picture. When describing an ordinary figure's portrait or monotonous scenery in the representational painting, this strong meaning will be diminished and the feature of the programme picture will be enfeebled, thus it approximates to the absolute picture.

Sato, for whom the absolute picture is desirable, chooses a lot of those objects.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)


The objective element of composition

 

The object chosen as the theme of a picture and its setting. The composition of the picture is decided by combination and arrangement of these two elements. Assume that a painter is drawing a picture of the Alps where sheep gathers under the brilliant sun. In this case, the blue sky, the grassland, the high mountains and the sheep are considered as four essential elements, in other words, the objective elements of composition. It's subject to the painter's taste that from what distance he views or whether he describes sheep as a main object. But unless he changes the theme of the picture, these four elements should not be omitted based on his subjectivity.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The subjective element of composition

 

The position when a painter sees an object. For example, even a small garbage can may look like a huge cliff when it's looked up from just under. The shape of an object varies according to the position of the observer, and it gives a change to the theme and composition of the picture as well. Therefore the physical viewpoint of a painter is one of the decisive factors in the nature of composition; this is the subjective element of composition.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Pure realism

 

Sato's posture to describe a single world faithfully, whether it is what the eyes can see or just the imaginary product. Because of this policy, Sato never draws multiple figures or human beings in the nature. He puts his heart and soul into the depiction of a single figure or a single piece of scenery. Since it's Sato's basic policy, there exist exceptions in his works but very few in numbers.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The separate picture

 

The picture which depicts only figures or scenery. It includes the one that has supplementary scenery in the setting of a figure, or a landscape with a figure added as staffage.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The integrated picture

 

The picture in which a figure and scenery, both are its theme, coexist.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The Ptolemaic rechange

 

When creating picture, Sato stands on the position of Ptolemaic system presuming that the very earth he lives on is the center of his picture. (This system is ascribed to Claudios Ptolemaios sThe Greek astronomer around the 2nd century B.C. The years of birth and death unknown.t) Therefore, he never overlooks an underworld from the sky or views the universe in the landscape. Sato's such a viewpoint is established in "The Token on Wilderness Inside of Myself". His act of taking this position is called "the Ptolemaic rechange" in this site.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The field

 

The ideal or real place where a painter comes across an object which becomes the theme of his work. The painter doesn't take up whatever he sees as the subject-matter without deep thinking. When he encountered an object which stimulates his creative urge, he sublimes it into a work. This act is similar to love. As the painter produces more and more works, in due time the field will be fixed to a specific place.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The painting in Japanese style

 

  The picture style founded in Japan before the impressionist picture was imported from France in the second half of the 19th century. It depicts historical events happened in Japan or eastern Asia, myth, scenery, etc. as its theme, and uses rock paints, Chinese ink, lacquer, glue as medium, the support of Japanese paper as drawing implement. The concrete instances include "Yamatoe" in the Heian times (794-1185), "Suibokuga" in the Muromachi times (1338-1573), "Fusumae" in the Azuchi-Momoyama times (1573-1600), and "Ukiyoe" in the the Edo times (1603-1867). "Yamatoe" and "Suibokuga" have succeeded Chinese technique. Furthermore the luxurious color brought by the Portuguese who visited Japan in those days was incorporated to "Shohekiga", and so was the perspective to "Ukiyoe" by the Dutch who had the only commercial relation with Japan. As mentioned above, the Japanese style painting has not been pioneered only in the Japanese culture but developed by absorbing a great deal of foreign techniques. The modern European style picture which has undergone the influence of impressionism is especially called "Youga (a western painting)" in Japan. Youga is distinguished from the Japanese style painting; accordingly artistic education is provided in a totally different method, and painting circles have been separately formed as well.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The etude

 

    The experimental or trial work created for study or research. As the general artistic term, it's defined as almost synonymous with dessin, and is drawn for the preparation to complete a work for the purpose of fixing composition or altering detailed description to be more accurate. In Sato's case, since he almost achieves his purpose by picturing human body itself in the portrait, his work sometimes completes as "the etude" even though some parts are left unfinished.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)



Tableau

 

    The independent complete picture work which is neither a sketch nor an etude. The wall painting isn't included in this category. Its etymology is Latin "tabula" which means "a board". In the Middle Ages Europe before the canvas appeared, painters had used to complete their pictures carefully by drawing on the easy-to-carry board keeping them as personal possession. This "board picture" persisted as a word after the appearance of the canvas to this day, and has taken a firm hold on the artistic term indicating the picture as explained in the opening paragraph.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Salon Academy at the French palace

 

@  In 1664, French king Louis the 14th put all art schools and exhibitions under the control of the royal family in order to get the governmental supervisory authority on the art. This is "the royal academy of painting and sculpture (Acadèmie royale de peinture et de sculpture)". "The academy" held the first exhibition in "square room (salon carrè)" at the Louvre palace in 1667. The exhibition of the royal family was named "salon" after the venue. "Salon" was interrupted several times thereafter, but resumed biannually since 1737. The management was transferred from the government to "the institute of artist of France (Beaux-Art de l'institut de France)" in 1881, then the structure that "salon" had been a monopolistic exhibition came to an end. Later on, some societies became independent and held "salon" separately.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


École de Paris

 

    The group of foreign painters who gathered in Paris from World War I to the 1930s. They didn't have a specific technique or theory; only one thing common to all of them was that they were the Jewish in the same generation expelled from their mother countries. Among them are Amedeo Modigliani (1884-1920), Jules Pascin (1885-1930), Marc Chagall (1887-1985), Moïse Kisling (1891-1953) and Caïm Soutine (1893-1943). They lived in Montmartre and Montparnasse and produced a lot of works in the painting style which combined French sense of feelings with their ethnic characteristics of their mother countries. In parenthesis, in the countries except France, this term is occasionally used in the broad sense to include foreign painters, other than Jew, who played an active role in Paris, such as Pablo Ruiz Picasso (1881-1973), Joan Miro (1893-1983), Max Ernst (1891-1976), Tsuguharu Fujita (1886-1968) and so on.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


The cultural code

 

  The word "code" refers to a systematic collection of laws. The culture functions so that anyone belongs to a community observes the tacitly established norms and everyday affairs as the custom without exercise of governmental authority. For example, when someone meets someone for the first time, the specific act of exchanging bows is required in Japan; it's considered as a culture. Though such a norm has not represented in words, it has its own system accumulated in the long history like the decree collection. Therefore it's appropriate to prescribe it by the word "code".

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Dualistic recognition

 

    The theory that elements which constitutes the essence of all the phenomena are in pairs; according which seemingly opposed two elements are unified, e.g. mind and matter, movement and stillness, negative and positive, and so on. Consequently, if someone takes this point of view, he tends to become a centrist who thinks much of balance and pursues harmony.

(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 


Existence

 

    The term refers to the individual being, opposite to the essence. A philosophical term. For example, the essence of "vegetable" is a multi-cellular life which has the chlorophyll to photosynthesize, and it forms the concept applicable to all plants. However, if you see a cherry tree before your eyes and recall your love in the past, this cherry tree is given a peculiar meaning which cannot be grasped by the above-mentioned concept of vegetable. Here a cherry tree before your eyes, an individual existence, is burdened with a personal history that weighs heavily. In this manner, the essence and the existence differ completely in their meanings, and it is "existence" that specifically applied to the human beings. The meaning of the "existence" was clarified in detail by German philosopher Martin Heidegger (1889-1976) and Karl Jaspers (1883-1969) after World War I.
(Written and translated by Taketoshi Murayama. Original translation is rewritten by Michiko Takahashi Christofis)

 

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